In Focus
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Social media providers are currently faced with a dilemma: to take on an editorial role or respond to the demands of their investors. The revolt against fake news is part of a defence mechanism on the part of elites and poses a problem that we are far from resolving.

According to Zygmunt Bauman and Peter Sloterdijk, in the liquid universe of bubbles, the individual has absolute sovereignty over what he or she chooses to know. Mark Zuckerberg’s naivety, on the other hand, resides in his belief in the innocence of networks. A survey in the US has shown that during the final three months of the US presidential campaign, fake news was shared more widely and more often on Facebook than real information.
  Health
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Over the past 25 years, the world has made significant progress in saving young children’s lives. The rate of child mortality fell 62 per cent from 1990–2016, with under-five deaths dropping from 12.7 million to 5.6 million.

But this progress has not been universal.

A new report from UNICEF and its partners in the Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME), Levels and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2017, shows the full scope of child and newborn mortality across the world. In addition to global estimates for under-five, infant and newborn mortality, the report for the first time contains estimates on mortality among children aged 5-14.
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It has been customary since the 1980's to associate the idea of integration with that of a "model", as if each country had a specific "pattern" when dealing with its immigrants. This notion is not unfounded, although it leads to simplified, partially incorrect representations in the way that countries manage their diversity. It is anchored in the observation that the way cultural, linguistic and religious diversity is treated differs according to political systems. Michaël Walzer is one of the only authors to have offered a classification of the political systems according to their approach to diversity. He defines five types of "political tolerance systems" in the West: multinational empires, international society, consociations, Nation-States and immigration societies. Each of these systems is typified by a specific management of cultural, linguistic and religious diversity, which is the foundation of a specific mode of cohabitation.
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Aujourd’hui, les forêts naturelles couvrent encore un quart des terres émergées du globe (CIRAD, 2008) et remplissent toujours de multiples fonctions, tant écologiques qu’économiques, sociales et culturelles [1]. Malgré ces fonctions de première importance, le déboisement « se poursuit au rythme alarmant d’environ 13 millions d’hectares par an » [2] et la perte nette estimée, après régénération et nouvelles plantations, est de 8 millions d’hectares par an, soit 220 km² par jour… Depuis 1990, le Brésil a ainsi perdu 50 millions d’hectares de forêts, plus de 10% de son couvert total. Les deux autres grands bassins forestiers tropicaux – la zone Malaisie/Indonésie et l’Afrique centrale – ne sont pas en reste. Le Soudan, la Birmanie, la Zambie, la Tanzanie, le Nigeria, la République démocratique du Congo, le Zimbabwe et le Venezuela figurent, derrière le Brésil et l’Indonésie, parmi les dix pays dont la diminution nette annuelle du couvert forestier est la plus importante.
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The new global Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Index introduced in this report bridges insights from gender and development indices with those from peace and security indices. The index incorporates three basic dimensions of well- being—inclusion (economic, social, political); justice (formal laws and informal discrimination); and security (at the family, community, and societal levels)—and captures and quantifies them through 11 indicators. It ranks 153 countries—covering more than 98 percent of the world’s population—along these three dimensions in a way that focuses attention on key achievements and major shortcomings. It reflects a shared vision that countries are more peaceful and prosperous when women are accorded full and equal rights and opportunity. A primary goal of the index is to accelerate progress on both the international Women, Peace and Security agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals, bringing partners together around an agenda for women’s inclusion, justice, and security. It offers opportunities for stakeholders to review and discuss challenges and to identify opportunities for trans- formative change. It highlights key priorities, points toward a roadmap of needed reforms, and can inform more effective partnerships and collaboration.
  Heritage
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Comment sauvegarder le cœur multi­millénaire mutilé d’Alep, la deu­xi­ème ville syrienne, une des plus vieilles cités de la planète, inscrite au Patrimoine mondial de l’Unesco en 1986 ? Et son vieux souk anéanti par les bombardements intensifs de 2016, du régime syrien et de son allié russe, visant à chasser les insurgés et les djihadistes, après quatre ans de guerre et trente mille morts ? Comment rendre vie aux treize kilomètres de venelles voûtées du bazar ? Ces questions étaient au cœur des débats organisés, vendredi 3 novembre, au ­Carrousel du Louvre, à Paris, dans le cadre du Salon international du patrimoine culturel.
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Solar energy brightens lives of refugees

Author : Deutsche Welle
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A refugee camp in Jordan has become the first in the world to be powered by renewable energy. The solar-powered Azraq camp is now changing the lives of some 20,000 Syrian refugees. Last week, the UN refugee agency and its partners switched on that solar-power plant that some of the refugees helped build.
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