Ref. :  000005941
Date :  2003-03-05
Language :  English
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Political inertia exacerbates water crisis, says World Water Development Report First UN system-wide evaluation of global water resources

Author :  UNESCO


Faced with “inertia at the leadership level”, the global water crisis will reach unprecedented levels in the years ahead with “growing per capita scarcity of water in many parts of the developing world”, according to a United Nations report made public today. Water resources will steadily decline because of population growth, pollution and expected climate change.
The World Water Development Report - Water for People, Water for Life - is the most comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the state of the resource. Presented on the eve of the Third World Water Forum (Kyoto, Japan, March 16 – 23), it represents the single most important intellectual contribution to the Forum and the International Year of Freshwater (www.wateryear2003.org), which is being led by UNESCO and the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

To compile the report, every UN agency and commission dealing with water has for the first time worked jointly to monitor progress against water-related targets in such fields as health, food, ecosystems, cities, industry, energy, risk management, economic evaluation, resource sharing and governance. The 23 UN partners constitute the World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), whose secretariat is hosted by UNESCO.

“Of all the social and natural crises we humans face, the water crisis is the one that lies at the heart of our survival and that of our planet Earth,” says UNESCO Director-General Koïchiro Matsuura.

“No region will be spared from the impact of this crisis which touches every facet of life, from the health of children to the ability of nations to secure food for their citizens,” says Mr Matsuura. “Water supplies are falling while the demand is dramatically growing at an unsustainable rate. Over the next 20 years, the average supply of water world-wide per person is expected to drop by a third.”

Despite widely available evidence of the crisis, political commitment to reverse these trends has been lacking. A string of international conferences over the past 25 years has focused on the great variety of water issues including ways to provide the basic water supply and sanitation services required in the years to come. Several targets have been set to improve water management but “hardly any”, says the report, “have been met.”

“Attitude and behaviour problems lie at the heart of the crisis,” says the report, “inertia at leadership level, and a world population not fully aware of the scale of the problem means we fail to take the needed timely corrective actions”.

Many countries and territories are already in a state of crisis. The report ranks over 180 countries and territories in terms of the amount of renewable water resources available per capita, meaning all of the water circulating on the surface, in the soil or deeper underground (see chart).

The poorest in terms of water availability is Kuwait (where 10 m³ is available per person each year) followed by Gaza Strip (52 m³), United Arab Emirates (58 m³), Bahamas (66 m³), Qatar (94 m³), Maldives (103 m³), Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (113 m³), Saudi Arabia (118 m³), Malta (129 m³) and Singapore (149 m³).

The top ten water-rich countries (with the exception of Greenland and Alaska) are: French Guiana (812,121 m³ available per person per year), Iceland (609,319 m³), Guyana (316,689 m³), Suriname (292,566 m³), Congo (275,679 m³), Papua New Guinea (166,563 m³), Gabon (133,333 m³), Solomon Islands (100,000 m³), Canada (94,353 m³), New Zealand (86,554 m³).

By the middle of this century, at worst seven billion people in 60 countries will be faced with water scarcity, at best 2 billion in 48 countries, depending on factors like population growth and policy-making. Climate change will account for an estimated 20% of this increase in global water scarcity, according to the report. Humid areas will probably see more rain, while it is expected to decrease and become more erratic in many drought-prone regions and even some tropical and sub-tropical regions. Water quality will worsen with rising pollution levels and water temperatures.

The water crisis “is set to worsen despite continuing debate over the very existence of such a crisis,” says the report. About 2 million tons of waste are dumped every day into rivers, lakes and streams. One litre of wastewater pollutes about eight litres of freshwater. According to calculations in the report, there is an estimated 12,000 km³ of polluted water worldwide, which is more than the total amount contained in the world’s ten largest river basins at any given moment. Therefore, if pollution keeps pace with population growth, the world will effectively lose 18,000 km³ of freshwater by 2050 – almost nine times the total amount countries currently use each year for irrigation, which is by far the largest consumer of the resource. Irrigation currently accounts for 70% of all water withdrawals worldwide.

The report ranks 122 countries according to the quality of their water as well as their ability and commitment to improve the situation (see chart). Belgium is considered the worst basically because of the low quantity and quality of its groundwater combined with heavy industrial pollution and poor treatment of wastewater. It is followed by Morocco, India, Jordan, Sudan, Niger, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic and Rwanda.

The list of countries with the best quality is headed by Finland followed by Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Japan, Norway, Russian Federation, Republic of Korea, Sweden and France.

“The poor continue to be the worst affected, with 50% of the population in developing countries exposed to polluted water sources,” says the report. Asian rivers are the most polluted in the world, with three times as many bacteria from human waste as the global average. Moreover, these rivers have 20 times more lead than those of industrialized countries.

“The future of many parts of the world looks bleak,” says the report, in reference to projected population growth, which will continue to be a driving factor in the water crisis. Per capita water supplies decreased by a third between 1970 and 1990, according to the report. Even though birth rates are slowing down, the world’s population should still reach about 9.3 billion by 2050 (compared to 6.1 billion of 2001).

“Water consumption has almost doubled in the last 50 years. A child born in the developed world consumes 30 to 50 times the water resources of one in the developing world. Meanwhile water quality continues to worsen […]. Every day, 6000 people, mostly children under the age of five, die from diarrhoeal diseases,” says the report. “These statistics illustrate the enormity of the problems facing the world with respect to its water resources, and the startling disparities that exist in its utilization.”

Against this background, the report takes an in-depth look at every major dimension of water use and management – from the growth of cities to the threat of looming water wars between countries. A single thread runs through each section: the water crisis - be it the number of children dying of disease or polluted rivers - is a crisis of governance and a lack of political will to manage the resource wisely.

“Globally, the challenge lies in raising the political will to implement water-related commitments,” says the report. “Water professionals need a better understanding of the broader social, economic and political context, while politicians need to be better informed about water resource issues. Otherwise water will continue to be an area for political rhetoric and lofty promises instead of sorely needed actions.”

With more than 25 world maps, numerous charts, graphs and seven case studies of major river basins, the report analyzes how diverse societies cope with water scarcity, including policies that work or don’t work. It lays the foundations – through the World Water Assessment Programme - for the UN to regularly monitor and report on the state of the resource by developing a set of standardized methodologies, data and indicators.

The report will be formally presented to the international community on World Water Day, March 22nd, (www.waterday2003.org) during the World Water Forum in Kyoto. A series of high-level panel discussions will be organized to discuss the results.

Chapter highlights:

Health and Economics
“The 21st century is the century in which the overriding problem is one of water quality and management,” says the report. More than 2.2 million people die each year from diseases related to contaminated drinking water and poor sanitation. Water vector-borne diseases also take a heavy toll: about a million people die from malaria each year and more than 200 million suffer from schistosomiasis, known as bilharzias. “Yet these terrible losses, with the waste and suffering they represent, are preventable.”

The international community pledged in the UN Millennium Development Goals (2000) and at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) to halve the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. To achieve these targets, an additional 1.5 billion people will require improved access to water supply (by 2015). This means providing services for another 100 million people each year (274,000/day) from 2000 to 2015.

“The challenge for sanitation is more daunting,” says the report. An additional 1.9 billion people will need improved access, which means another 125 million each year (342,000/day) from 2000 to 2015. The report explains that cultural factors further complicate the logistical and financial difficulties in providing adequate sanitation.

If the current level of investment were maintained, all regions in the world could reach or come close to both goals, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa, according to the report. But “in absolute terms, the investment needs of Asia outstrip those of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean combined.” It is estimated that the first interventions would cost about US$12.6 billion.

Questions remain as to the source of this investment. “Financing the Millennium Development Goals will probably be one of the most important challenges that the international community will have to face over the next 15 years,” says the report.

The report outlines debates over water pricing and privatization. “Although it is considered essential to involve the private sector in water resource management,” according to the executive summary of the report, “it should be seen as a financial catalyst – not so much as a precondition – for project development […]. Control of the assets and the resource should remain in the hands of the government and users.”

The report also insists that any privatization or water-pricing scheme must include mechanisms to protect the poor. “A disturbing fact is that poor people with the most limited access to water supply have to pay significantly more for water.” In Delhi (India), for example, vendors charge the poor US$4.89 per m³, while families with piped connections pay just US$0.01, according to a survey published in the report. In Vientiane (Lao PDR), vendors charge $US14.68 per m³, compared to municipal tariffs of US$0.11.

Agriculture
About 25,000 people die every day from hunger, according to the report. An estimated 815 million people suffer from undernourishment: 777 million in developing countries, 27 million in countries in transition and 11 million in industrialized countries.

“The absolute number of undernourished people is reducing at a much slower rate,” says the report, despite the fact that “food production is satisfying the market demand at historically low prices”.

The international community has pledged through the Millennium Goals (2000) to halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015. However, this may not be achieved before 2030 according to new findings presented in the report. Previous estimates did not distinguish between rainfed and irrigated crops. By factoring in this distinction, the report presents more precise projections concerning the water required to feed the world today and in the future.

According to these new calculations, another 45 million hectares will be irrigated by 2030 in 93 developing countries, where most of the population growth will take place. About 60% of all land that could be irrigated will be in use. This will require an increase by 14% of irrigation water, according to the report.

Of the some 170 countries and territories surveyed, 20 are already using more than 40% of their renewable water resources for irrigation , “a threshold used to flag the level at which countries are forced to make difficult choices between their agricultural and urban water supply sectors”, says the report. Another 16 countries use more than 20%, “which can indicate impending water scarcity. By 2030 South Asia will on average have reached the 40% level, and the Near East and North Africa not less than 58%.”

By contrast, sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and East Asia are likely to remain far below the critical threshold. These regions will see the bulk of agricultural expansion in the next 30 years.

The challenge lies in improving efficiency of land and water use. Irrigation is extremely inefficient – close to 60% of the water used is wasted. This will only improve by an estimated total of 4%. There is a tremendous need to improve the financing of better technology and to promote better management practices.

On a more positive note, average grain yields doubled between 1962 and 1996, from 1.4 to 2.8 tons/hectares/crop. This means that less than half the amount of arable land is now required to grow the same amount of grain. “By 2030, it is expected that 80% of increased crop production will come from higher yields, increased multiple cropping and shorter fallow periods,” says the report.

“Towards 2050, the world could enjoy access to food for all,” says the report. “The fact that 815 million are presently ravaged by chronic undernourishment is not due to a lack of capacity to produce the required food, but to global and national social, economic and political contexts that permit, and sometimes cause, unacceptable levels of poverty to perpetuate.”

According to the World Water Development Report:

- Using treated wastewater could ease the water crisis. Farmers already use this resource for about 10% of irrigated land in developing countries and could use more. With proper treatment, it can actually improve soil fertility.

- Food security is improving globally. Per capita food consumption in developing countries rose from 2,054 kcal per day in 1965 to 2,681 in 1998.

- Pastures and crops take up 37% of the Earth’s land area.

- About 10% of the world’s irrigated lands have been damaged by waterlogging and salinization because of poor drainage and irrigation practices.

Ecology
“By the year 2025, it is predicted that water withdrawal will increase by 50% in developing countries and 18% in developed countries,” says the report. “Effects on the world’s ecosystems have the potential to dramatically worsen the present situation…”

The report describes a vicious circle unleashed by growing water demand. By depleting and polluting rivers, lakes and wetlands, we are destroying ecosystems which play an essential role in filtering and assuring freshwater resources.

In the United States, 40% of water bodies assessed in 1998 were not deemed fit for recreational use due to nutrient, metal and agricultural pollution. Furthermore only five out of 55 rivers in Europe are considered pristine, according to the report and, in Asia, all rivers running through cities are badly polluted. 60% of the world’s 227 largest rivers are severely fragmented by dams, diversions and canals leading to the degradation of ecosystems.

Turning to the animal life of inland waters, the report says that 24% of mammals and 12% of birds are threatened. Between 34 and 80 fish species have become extinct since the late 19th century, six since 1970. Only about 10% of the world’s fish species, the majority from inland waters, have been studied in detail, yet a third are at risk.

International Conflict and Cooperation
As demand for water grows, there is much talk of looming water wars. The report presents empirical data indicating the contrary. While water scarcity will intensify conflicts between states, there is little evidence to suggest that these situations will explode into full-fledged water wars.

The report highlights the findings of a study of every single water-related interaction between two countries or more over the past 50 years. Of the total of 1,831 interactions, the overwhelming majority, 1,228, were cooperative. They involved the signing of about 200 water-sharing treaties or the construction of new dams.

There is a total of 507 conflictive events. Only 37 involved violence, of which 21 consisted of military acts (18 between Israel and its neighbours).

“Some of the most vociferous enemies around the world have negotiated water agreements or are in the process of doing so concerning international rivers,” says the report. “The Mekong Committee, for example, continued to exchange data throughout the Viet Nam War. The Indus River Commission survived through two wars between India and Pakistan. And all ten Nile riparian states are currently involved in negotiations over development of the basin.”

There are 261 international rivers basins, involving 145 nations. About one third of these basins are shared by more than two countries, and 19 involve five or more. According to the report, a good part of Africa and the Middle East depend upon these shared resources for more than half their water supplies as does the southern tip of Latin America.

While much attention has been paid to international rivers, groundwater supplies (aquifers) have been largely ignored, despite the massive volumes of generally high-quality water involved (estimated at 23,400,000 km³ compared with the 42,800 km³ in rivers). Many decision-makers are not even aware that they share aquifers with other countries. The report presents the preliminary findings of a UN initiative to compile the first global map and inventory of these resources.

It also presents the first map of the world’s groundwater resources. Aquifers store as much as 98% of accessible water supplies. Between 600 to 700 km³ are extracted each year, providing about 50% of the world’s drinking supply, 40% of industrial demands and 20% of irrigated agriculture, according to the report. These proportions vary widely from country to country and are presented in a detailed chart.

Cities
“When infrastructure and services are lacking, urban areas lacking water infrastructure are among the world’s most life threatening environments,” says the report. According to a survey of 116 cities, urban areas in Africa are the worst served, with only 18% of households connected to sewers. The connection rate in Asia is just over 40%.

“The poor of these cities are the first victims of sanitation-related disease, flooding and even a rising rate of water-borne disease like malaria, which is now among the main causes of illness and death in many urban areas,” says the report. In South Asia, for example, the Anopheles stephensi mosquito has actually adapted its breeding habits around the ubiquitous rooftop water storage tankers.

“From a public health perspective,” says the report, “it is better to provide a whole city’s population with safe supplies to taps within 50 metres of their home than to provide only the richest 20% of households with water piped to their home.”

The report also outlines several reasons as to why cities and towns should take priority over rural areas when choices must be made. First, the unit costs of the required infrastructure are lower because urban areas provide significant economies of scale and proximity. Secondly, many cities have a more prosperous economic base than rural areas, providing greater possibilities to raise revenues for water provision. Thirdly, “urban areas concentrate not only people and enterprises but also their wastes.”

Industrial Use
Today industry accounts for 22% of total water use in the world: 59% in high-income countries and 8% in low-income countries. The report predicts that this average will reach 24% by 2025, when industry uses an estimated 1,170 km³/year.

Every year, 300 – 500 million tons of heavy metals, solvents, toxic sludge and other wastes accumulate in water resources from industry. More than 80% of the world’s hazardous waste is produced in the United States and other industrial countries.

Natural Disaster Risk
The report outlines the need to make risk reduction an integral part of water resource management. While the number of geophysical disasters like earthquakes and landslides has remained fairly steady, the scale and number of water-related events (droughts and floods) has more than doubled since 1996. During the past decade, 665,000 people were killed by natural disasters. Over 90% lost their lives in floods and droughts. 35% of these disasters occurred in Asia, 29% in Africa, 20% in the Americas, 13% in Europe and the rest in Oceania.

Energy
Hydropower is the most important and widely used renewable source of energy, providing 19% of total electricity production in 2001. Industrialized countries are exploiting about 70% of their electricity potential, compared to 15% in developing countries, according to the report. Canada is the largest producer followed by the United States and Brazil. Untapped hydro-resources are still abundant in Latin America, India and China.

“By developing half of this potential, we could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 13%,” says the report. However, it also points to the many negative impacts of dam construction, including displacement of local populations and environmental damage (like loss of biodiversity and wetlands).

World Water Portal
WWAP, together with other partners, is developing the World Water Portal, to provide seamless access to a wide body of water information to decision-makers, water managers, technicians and the public at large. Before going global, a prototype water portal has been developed for the Americas to test ways of sharing information among local, national and regional water organizations. www.waterportal-americas.org


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 flecheWorld Conference on Dialogue among Religions and Civilizations - Ohrid 2010 (6-9th May 2010, Ohrid - The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)
 flecheThe ethical challenges of climate change
 flecheGilles Bœuf, President of the French National Museum of Natural History: “We must impose the payment of royalties for using resources”
 flecheExpert meeting in Paris revised the concept of knowledge societies
 flecheInternational Women’s Day: Interview with Irina Bokova, the first woman Director-General of UNESCO
 flecheInformation for All Programme Annual World Report 2009 available online
 flecheCreating a research institute on regional integration in West Africa
 flecheUNESCO Director-General to launch the International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures
 flecheThe global biodiversity challenge
 flecheFinancial crisis threatens to set back education worldwide, UNESCO report warns
 flecheMigration and Human Rights. The United Nations Convention on Migrant Workers' Rights / Edited by Paul de Guchteneire, UNESCO, Paris; Antoine Pecoud, UNESCO, Paris; and Ryszard Cholewinski, International Organization for Migration, Geneva
 flecheUNESCO is best positioned to provide answers to globalization
 flecheUNESCO and ICANN sign partnership agreement to promote linguistic diversity on internet
 flecheEducation for sustainable development crucial to tackle climate change
 flecheGoogle and UNESCO announce alliance to provide virtual visits of several World Heritage sites
 flecheUNESCO publishes brochure on follow-up to World Summit on the Information Society
 flecheUNESCO releases booklet on the human right to water
 flecheToo many walls remain, says UNESCO Director-General elect on Berlin Wall anniversary
 flecheDeath of Claude Lévi-Strauss a loss to the whole of humanity, says UNESCO Director-General
 fleche"Environmental Memoirs" - a series of biographies from citizens around the world
 fleche"Science must be one of the priorities"
 flecheIt is urgent to invest in cultural diversity and dialogue, according to a new UNESCO report
 flecheUNESCO Book Project for 2010 on Migration, Environment and Climate Change
 flecheDeveloping countries boost their R&D efforts
 flecheThe Tango, Ainu dance of Japan and France’s Aubusson tapestry inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
 flecheLaunching of the database and Community of Practice on Water and Cultural Diversity
 flecheIrina Gueorguieva Bokova chosen by UNESCO Executive Board as candidate to the post of Director-General
 flecheUNESCO organizes First Forum on Cultural Industries in Monza (Italy)
 flecheNouvelle Chaire UNESCO d’esthétique et de sociologie de la différence et de la diversité culturelle en Argentine
 flecheInternational Conference on « Globalization through Localization: Cultural dialogue through Harry Potter Translations » (Septembre, 8th 2009, Paris)
 flecheCase Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage
 flecheUNESCO organizes first international conference on Broadcast Media and Climate Change (on September 4-5th 2009 in Paris)
 flecheUNESCO Audiovisual E-Platform renewed
 flecheInternational day of the world’s indigenous people: 9 August 2009 - Message from Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO
 flecheUNESCO organizes Forum on “Gender and Climate Change” at World Climate Conference-3 (31 August - 4 September 2009, Geneva - Switzerland)
 flecheCommuniqué of the 2009 World Conference on Higher Education: The new dynamics of higher education and research for societal change and development
 flecheThe state of higher education in the world today - World Conference on Higher Education
 flecheUNESCO World Conference on Higher Education will stress its role in meeting global challenges (5-8 July 2009, Paris - France)
 flecheDiversity, a synonym for culture
 flecheResolutions of the 2nd ordinary session of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions (June 15-16, 2009 - Paris)
 flecheThe G-20 summits and the UN system: prospects and challenges (UNESCO Future Lecture on June 18th 2009)
 flecheTechnology alone will not bridge knowledge divides
 flecheLa corruption dans le domaine de l’éducation : un problème mondial selon un nouveau rapport de l’UNESCO
 flecheConvention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions: 2nd ordinary session of the Conference of Parties (15-19 June 2009, Paris)
 flecheOpen Training Platform to become a hub for Cyber Network for Learning Languages
 fleche2009 World Cultural Diversity Festival (11-22 May 2009)
 flecheNollywood rivals Bollywood in film/video production
 flecheUNESCO seeks new ways of engaging world leaders in constructive dialogue
 flecheNicolas Bailly: "Everyone must be able to protect diversity in their own special way"
 flecheSharp drop in aid to basic education jeopardizes school chances for millions
 flecheUNESCO, U.S. Library of Congress and partners launch World Digital Library
 flecheUNESCO reaffirms its commitment to fight racism at the Durban Review Conference, Geneva, 20-24 April 2009
 flecheAfter the G20: UN chiefs point the way to recovery
 flecheUNESCO and Italy organize the first UNESCO Forum of Cultural Industries

 flecheUNESCO, Library of Congress and partners launch World Digital Library
 flecheLe Directeur général ouvre la deuxième session extraordinaire du Comité intergouvernemental pour la protection et la promotion de la diversité des expressions culturelles
 flecheUNESCO world conference on education for sustainable development (31 march - 2 april 2009, Bonn - Germany)
 flecheNew report highlights crucial role of water in development
 flecheGlobal crisis hits most vulnerable
 flecheArgentina will be the venue of the XVI Forum of Ministers of Culture and Officials in Charge of Cultural Policies of Latin America and the Caribbean
 flecheUNESCO Director-General calls for increased investment in global public goods at World Economic Forum in Davos
 flecheNew edition of UNESCO’s Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
 flecheInternational Mother Language Day, February 21
 flecheLaunch of UNESCO International Year of Astronomy
 flecheEthiopian filmmakers address the development challenge
 flecheNew dynamics in Higher Education
 flecheDiversity of cultural expressions: cooperation and sustainable development on agenda of UNESCO intergovernmental meeting (8-12th December 2008)
 flecheMeeting-debate "Culture, Economy, Regional Integration: Culture, a lever for African Development" (16th December 2008, UNESCO, Paris - France)

 flecheInequality undermining education opportunities for millions of children
 flecheRepresentative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity comes into being in Istanbul
 flecheMessage from Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO on the occasion of the World Day for Audiovisual Heritage: "Audiovisual Heritage as a witness of Cultural Identity"
 flecheUNESCO publishes first world map of underground transboundary aquifers
 flecheSecond ordinary session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions (8-12 December 2008, UNESCO, Paris)
 flecheDanish conference spotlights education for intercultural dialogue
 flecheAuroville’s 40th anniversary commemorated at UNESCO
 flecheConvention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage will enter into force in January 2009
 flecheUNESCO’s International Bioethics Committee resumes debate on human cloning
 flecheDraft summary records of the 1st Extraordinary Session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (June 2008, Paris)
 flecheInternational efforts to meet literacy challenge insufficient, concludes UNESCO report
 fleche"Why Languages Matter"
 flecheWorld Teachers’ Day 2008: 18 million more teachers needed
 flecheInternational conference set foundations for linguistic diversity in cyberspace
 flecheLena Resolution on linguistic and cultural diversity in cyberspace
 flecheUNESCO-Hewlett-Packard and CNRS project to reduce brain drain in Africa bears first fruit
 flecheTo mark the International Literacy Day 2008, the Unesco Institute for Statistics releases a new report on the underlying concepts, methodology and trends in literacy statistics
 fleche"In the Middle East, water is too important to fight over."
 flecheTwenty-seven new sites inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage this year
 flecheEight new sites, from the Straits of Malacca, to Papua New Guinea and San Marino, added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List
 flecheDecisions of the 1st extraordinary session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions
 flecheLyon appointed first «City of Media Arts» of UNESCO’s Creative Cities’ Network
 flecheExtraordinary session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
 flecheSouth-East European Heads of State pledge to use regional waterways to foster understanding
 flecheSecond session of the General Assembly of States Parties to the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (16-19 June 2008, Paris)
 flecheUNESCO survey finds under-privileged children also disadvantaged in the classroom
 flecheFirst Extraordinary Session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (24-27 June 2008, Paris)
 flecheMessage from Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, on the occasion of World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development
 flecheWorld Day for Cultural Diversity: May, 21st
 flecheMore power to the people through freedom of information - World Press Freedom Day 2008
 flecheWorld Book and Copyright Day - 23 April
 flecheAid to basic education stagnating, says UNESCO’s EFA Global Monitoring Report
 flecheEducation For All Global Action Week 2008 (21-27 April)
 flecheModern agricultural practices must change, concludes report to be presented at UNESCO
 flecheManage the unavoidable to avoid the unmanageable – that’s where we are at according to Italian climatologist Filippo Giorgi
 flecheDraft summary records of the of the First Ordinary Session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
 flecheMessage from Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, on the occasion of World Water Day: Sanitation
 flecheProgramme of the Symposium "Intercultural Dialogue and Cultural Diversity: a Renewed Debate" - launch of the 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue in France (13-14 March 2008, Unesco-Paris)
 flecheConvention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions - Culture in sustainable development : insights for the future implementation of Art. 13
 flecheAgenda of the launching of the International Year of Languages in the framework of the International Mother Language Day (February 21, 2008, Unesco - Paris)
 flecheNigeria hosts the 15th and last national seminar of UNESCO’s project on the challenges of regional integration in West Africa (26-28 February 2008, Lagos - Nigeria)
 flecheLanguages matter (The Unesco Courier 2008, n°1)
 flecheThird World Congress of Biosphere Reserves presents action guidelines for next six years of UNESCO’s MAB programme
 flecheLaunching of the International Year of Languages in the framework of the International Mother Language Day (21 February 2008, Paris)
 flecheThird World Congress of Biosphere Reserves (4-9 February 2008, Madrid)
 flecheUNESCO to launch new indicators for mapping and comparing national research systems
 flecheUNESCO Director-General to attend first Forum of the Alliance of Civilizations in Madrid
 flecheInternational Year of Planet Earth

 flecheCall for action at close of Ottowa session of Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
 fleche 'Culture or Commerce? A Comparative Assessment of International Interactions and Developing Countries at UNESCO, WTO, and Beyond', by J. P. Singh
 fleche'A study on creativity index', by Desmond Hui
 fleche‘Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Possible Statistical Implications?’ by Mirja Liikkanen
 flecheEducation for All Global Monitoring Report 2008
 flecheEducation for All on the right track finds Global Monitoring Report 2008 launched by UNESCO
 flecheFirst session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (10-13 December 2007, Ottawa - Canada)
 flecheMusic as a means of intercultural dialogue
 flecheMessage from Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, on the celebration of “2008, International Year of Languages” “Languages matter!”
 flecheStudents, teachers, schools face deliberate attacks in conflict areas – UNESCO
 flecheWorld Philosophy Day 2007, 15 November 2007
 flecheGeneral Conference defines UNESCO’s strategy for the coming six years
 flecheNew publication on private higher education in Europe
 flecheThe rising role and relevance of private higher education in Europe (Study)
 flecheNine new members elected to World Heritage Committee
 flecheExhibit "Planet earth : from space to place" (16th oct. - 3rd nov. 2007)
 flecheUNESCO and Library of Congress sign agreement for World Digital Library
 flecheBulgarian President highlights UNESCO’s contribution to understanding among peoples at General Conference opening
 flecheEducation and development to take centre stage at 34th session of UNESCO’s General Conference (16 October – 3 November)
 flecheGlobal Education Digest 2007
 flecheGlobal spending on education concentrated in just a handful of countries
 flecheEducation and development to take centre stage at 34th session of UNESCO’s General Conference (16 October – 3 November)
 flecheWorld Teachers’ Day 2007
 flecheSelection of new UNESCO biosphere reserves
 flecheChild deaths fall below 10 million for first time
 flecheInterview with Alexander Marc: “Education of the Roma: we have no reasons to be so pessimistic.”
 flecheExpert meeting on the statistical measurement of the diversity of cultural expressions
 flecheFirst inscriptions on UNESCO’s intangible cultural heritage lists to take place in September 2009
 flecheNew global survey on cinema
 flecheCountries of East Asia, South-East Asia and the Pacific pledge support for Literacy
 flecheUnequal Chances to Participate in Adult Learning: International Perspectives / Richard Desjardins, Kjell Rubenson and Marcella Milana

 flecheInterview with Mark Richmond: “While clear progress has been made, a serious gender gap persists”
 flecheFighting illiteracy in East Asia, South-East Asia and the Pacific
 flecheBeirut named “World Book Capital 2009”
 fleche2007 UNESCO Literacy Prize winners announced
 flecheTask force on languages and multilingualism: compendium on ongoing activities concerning languages and multilingualism (2006-2007)
 flecheThe World Heritage international safeguarding campaigns
 flecheFirst session of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions closes at UNESCO
 flecheJean Musitelli: "The Convention’s success depends on the will of States"
 flecheFirst session at UNESCO of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
 flecheCorruption in education a worldwide problem says new UNESCO report
 fleche15th Forum of Ministers of Culture and Officials in-Charge of Cultural Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean
 flecheBoundless Media Award: call for candidates
 flecheOfficial Launch of the World Centre for Language Documentation
 flecheProgramme of the Expert Meeting on "Mainstreaming principles of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue in policies for sustainable development" (Unesco, Paris, 21 - 23 May 2007)
 flecheWorld Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development
 flecheInternational conference "Migration: putting concerns to rest" (Paris, 10 May)
 flecheUNESCO observes World Press Freedom Day 2007 in Medellin, Colombia, focusing on safety of journalists
 flecheConference : UNESCO Conventions in the field of cultural and national legislation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (04-26-07)
 flecheReport: "Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage"
 flecheClimate change threatens UNESCO World Heritage sites
 flecheThe Protection and Promotion of Musical Diversity
 flecheExhibition “Living Heritage: Exploring the Intangible” (from 12 April to 30 November 2007)
 flecheProceedings of the International Symposium on Culture Statistics (Montréal, 21-23 October 2002)
 flecheUniversal Forum of Cultures - Monterrey 2007 (20 sept.- 11 nov. 2007, Monterrey, Mexico)
 flecheUNESCO brings together ministers from Latin America and the Caribbean to examine quality of education
 flecheUNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions enters into force
 flecheConference : Cultural Diversity - Europe's Wealth. Bringing the UNESCO Convention to Life
 flecheInternational Mother Language Day
 flecheActes du colloque "Diversité culturelle et valeurs transversales : un dialogue est-ouest sur la dynamique entre le spirituel et le temporel"
 fleche21st World Congress on Dance Research : "Dancers without frontiers"
 flechePost-conflict: Reconstructing for tomorrow
 flecheConvention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions will enter into force on 18 March 2007
 flecheWorld Philosophy Day and International Day for Tolerance celebrated worldwide on 16 November
 flecheMore than 15 States ratify the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
 flecheEarly childhood care and education, the forgotten link claims new report published by UNESCO
 flecheConvention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions
 flecheInternational Day of the World’s Indigenous People, 9 August 2006
 flecheUNESCO Director-General speaks of education’s financial gap at G8 summit in St Petersburg
 flecheFirst meeting of States Parties to the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
 flecheScientists meeting in Tunis propose measures to help curb desertification
 flecheThe Future of Drylands Conference
 flecheMessage from the Director-General of UNESCO on the occasion of World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development (21 May 2006)
 flecheUNESCO contributing to peace and human development in an era of globalization through education, the sciences, culture and communication
 fleche31st ITI World Congress and Theatre Olympics of the Nations
 flecheMessage from the Director-General of UNESCO on the occasion of World Book and Copyright Day, 23 April 2006
 flecheSmall islands, big issues
 flecheWater: a crisis of governance says second UN World Water Development Report
 flecheTowards Knowledge Societies – the first UNESCO World Report
 flecheEducation for All Global Monitoring Report 2006 : “Literacy for Life”
 flecheWomen’s Literacy for Sustainable Development
 flecheWanted! Teachers
 flecheBuilding the next generation of teachers in Africa
 flecheOpening of the Sixth E-9 Ministerial Review Meeting in Monterrey, Mexico
 flecheChina challenges dominance of USA, Europe and Japan in scientific research according to UNESCO Science Report 2005
 flecheThe UNESCO Science Report 2005 / UNESCO
 fleche22 March - World Water Day 2006: Water and Culture
 flecheUsers are choosers
 flecheLanguage Vitality and Endangerment
 flecheInternational Mother Language Day - 21 February 2006
 flecheExpert Meeting for Policy Leaders and Decision Makers in the Broadcasting and Audio-visual Industry in Asia
 flecheSubregional Seminar on "Cultural Indicators in Central America"
 fleche3rd Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts, and Islands warns progress towards international targets on oceans too slow
 flecheThe future of marine ecosystems to be examined by Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts, and Islands
 flecheConvention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage to Enter into Force on 20 April
 flecheLe Canada devient le premier Etat à ratifier la Convention sur la protection et la promotion de la diversité des expressions culturelles
 flecheLaunch of UNESCO’s Literacy Portal
 flecheBhaktapur: Open-Air Museum
 flecheRadio Ada, the Voice of Those Without a Voice
 flecheBridging the North South Divide
 flecheThe Rush for Water
 flecheCultural Diversity can neither be decreed nor improvised
 flecheA Burst of Creativity
 flecheTaking the Pulse of the Planet
 flecheThe Cells of Discord
 flecheParaguay and the Pirate’s Song
 flecheSeeking the Right Balance
 flecheEFA Global Monitoring Report 2005

 flecheMonitoring the Oceans
 flecheClimate Change / by Guy Jacques and Hervé Le Treut

 flecheAchieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015
 flecheDeveloping countries losing out in cultural trade
 flecheThe Rabat Commitment
 flecheThe Samba of Roda and the Ramlila proclaimed Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
 flecheThird Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
 flecheTraditional Music
 flecheTo promote presence of African languages in cyberspace UNESCO continues support for N’ko project
 flecheGeneral Conference adopts Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions
 flecheKultur versus Freihandel
 flecheProjet de Convention internationale sur la diversité culturelle - texte en projet résultant des négociations intergouvernementales
 flecheHeads of State of Tajikistan and Bosnia and Herzegovina advocate dialogue and cultural diversity at UNESCO’s General Conference
 flecheNatural Disaster Reduction
 flecheInternational Day for the Eradication of Poverty - 18-19 October 2004, UNESCO House, Paris
 flecheCultural diversity, doping and bioethics on the agenda of UNESCO’s General Conference
 flecheTwenty-one States have ratified the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
 flecheThe World Forum on Cultural Diversity
 flecheUNESCO prepares to launch new ICT teacher training project
 flecheInternational Day of the World’s Indigenous People, 9 August 2005
 flecheWorld heritage in young hands
 flecheLest we forget: the triumph over slavery
 flecheSouvenirs d'humanité
 flecheExposition photographique: Mémoires de l’Humanité
 flecheMusiques africaines
 flecheAction in favour of Indigenous Peoples
 flecheArtistic practices and techniques from Europe and North America favouring social cohesion and peace
 flechePresident Lula da Silva to inaugurate “UNESCO and Brazil” exhibition

 flecheIndian Ocean tsunami alert system to be launched at IOC Assembly in June
 flecheTwenty-nine new documentary collections inscribed on the Memory of the World Register
 flecheSommet Mondial sur la Société de l’Information (SMSI)
 flecheEducation for All in Africa: Paving the Way for Action

 flecheDialogue among Cultures and Civilizations : International Conference in Rabat
 flechePrimeras Jornadas del MERCOSUR
sobre Políticas Culturales para la Diversidad Cultural

 flechePropuesta de Plan Cultural de las Tres Fronteras
 flecheSecond meeting of Ministers of Culture of Asia and Europe (ASEM)
 flecheThe precautionary principle
 flecheMultilingualism in cyberspace conference concluded in Bamako
 flecheDiscours de M. Koïchiro Matsuura sur l’avant-projet de convention concernant la protection de la diversité des contenus culturels et des expressions artistiques
 flecheUNESCO e NASA firmam parceria
 flecheWorld Heritage and contemporary architecture : Towards new conservation standards
 flecheRencontres sahariennes
 flecheCultural Diversity and Globalization: The Arab-Japanese Experience, a Cross-Regional Dialogue
 flecheGlobal education digest shows rapid growth in secondary education worldwide
 fleche171e Conseil exécutif de l’UNESCO : La troisième session de la Réunion intergouvernementale d’experts sur le projet de Convention se tiendra du 25 mai au 4 juin 2005 à Paris
 flecheDiogenes 209: "Approaching Utopia"
 flecheRapport du Directeur général sur l'état d'avancement du projet de convention sur la protection de la diversité des contenus culturels et des expressions artistiques
 flecheInformation Meeting with Permanent Delegations on the Strategic Review and Implementation Plans of UNESCO’s Post-Dakar Role in Education for All (EFA)
 flecheParticipation of the European Community in the intergovernmental meeting of experts (Category II) on the preliminary draft convention on the protection of the diversity of cultural contents and artistic expressions
 flecheExperts warn ecosystem changes threaten development
 flecheCha, In-Suk
 flecheCelebration of International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
 fleche22 March: World Water Day initiates the International Decade for action 'Water for Life'
 flechePartie II - Résultats des travaux du groupe de travail informel
 flechePartie I - Résultats des travaux du comité de rédaction
 flecheRapport préliminaire du Directeur Général contenant deux avant-projets de Convention sur la protection de la diversité des contenus culturels et des expressions artistiques
 flecheLes inventaires du patrimoine culturel immatériel

 flecheDiversité culturelle et pluralisme
 flecheRapport préliminaire du Directeur Général contenant deux avant-projets de Convention sur la protection de la diversité des contenus culturels et des expressions artistiques
 flecheMessage from Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, on the occasion of International Women’s Day, 8 March 2005
 flecheUNESCO treaty on protecting oral traditions could come into force next year
 flecheInternational Cultural Forum Beijing 2004 - UNESCO Office Beijing
 flecheEleven States Ratify Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention
 flecheFirst edition of the Global Alliance Newsletter
 flecheSixth meeting of the Intersectoral Task Force on UNESCO’s contribution to the World Summit on the Information Society
 flecheSecond session of the intergovernmental meeting of experts on the Preliminary Draft Convention on the Protection of the Diversity of Cultural Contents and Artistic Expressions (31 January – 12 February 2005)

 flecheFirst meeting of experts on the cultural heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem
 flecheInternational Conference on Biodiversity: Science and Governance
 flecheUNESCO to announce global strategy for establishment of a tsunami early warning system
 flecheFirst anniversary of the earthquake at World Heritage city of Bam (Iran)
 flecheUNESCO offers tsunami assistance to countries in South Asia
 flecheFirst meeting of the Drafting Committee for the Preliminary Draft Convention on the protection of the diversity of cultural contents and artistic expressions

 flecheMatsuura, Koïchiro
 flecheDie unterschiedlichen Begriffe von "Kultureller Vielfalt" (von Bernard Wicht)
 flecheAvant-projet de convention sur la protection de la diversité des contenus culturels et des expressions artistiques
 flecheUNESCO and Microsoft sign cooperation agreement to help bridge the digital divide
 flecheYamato Declaration on Integrated Approaches for Safeguarding Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage
 flecheQuality of Education insufficient to achieve Education For All by 2015
 fleche2005 Education for All Global Monitoring Report
 flecheSafeguarding of Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage: Toward an Integrated Approach
 flecheFirst Intergovernmental Meeting on the preliminary draft International Convention on the Protection of the Diversity of Cultural Contents and Artistic Expressions
 flecheDémocratie et gouvernance mondiale
 flecheInternational Day for the Eradication of Poverty (18-19 October 2004, UNESCO House, Paris)
 flecheCall for a European Coalition of Cities Against Racism
 flecheInternational Conference on education : "Quality education for all young people: Challenges, trends and priorities"

 flecheInternational Literacy Day
 flecheUNESCO celebrates International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition
 fleche 2000 Illiteracy rates - World Regions by gender
 flecheSchool life expectancy
 flecheThe future of values / Jérôme Bindé (dir.)
 flecheUNESCO’s 21st Century Dialogue on Building Knowledge Societies Today in Seoul
 flecheNew sites to be added to World Heritage List
 flecheZum Stand einer internationalen Konventionen zum Schutz der kulturellen Vielfalt
 fleche21 May 2004 - World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development
 flecheSymposium international "Diversité culturelle et mondialisation : l'expérience arabo-japonaise, un dialogue inter-régional"
 fleche"Diversité culturelle : synthèse des travaux préliminaires et des réunions d'experts de catégorie VI et perspectives"
 flecheSession d'information avec les délégations permanentes des États membres de l'UNESCO sur le processus d'élaboration d'un avant-projet de Convention sur la protection de la diversité des contenus culturels et des expressions artistiques
 flecheL'eau et la gouvernance : quelques exemples de bonnes pratiques
 flecheUnesco Lança Índice de Desenvolvimento Juvenil Inédito no Mundo
 flecheA new international instrument to enhance the protection of cultural property in times of war
 flecheDialogue assumes equality
 flechePremière réunion du groupe d'experts sur l'avant-projet de Convention internationale concernant la protection de la diversité des contenus culturels et des expressions artistiques
 flecheUNESCO High-Level Symposium on Knowledge Societies at WSIS concluded
 flecheConférence Internationale des ONG de 2003

 flecheGlobal alliance for cultural diversity presents its first results
 flecheCommission Sociale: l'éducation et la lutte contre la pauvreté sont les priorités en matière de promotion des Droits de l'Homme
 flecheGirls continue to face sharp discrimination in access to school
 flecheNew Technologies: Mirage or Miracle?
 flecheUNESCO Project Elaborates Methodology To Asses ICT Impact On Poverty Eradication
 flecheWorld Cities join to protect their biological and cultural diversity
 fleche2003 International Year of Freshwater: Water, A flood of promises, a trickle of progress
 flecheConvention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
 flecheUNESCO adopts international declaration on human genetic data
 flecheWorld Heritage Convention: 14th General Assembly
 flecheThe 32nd session of UNESCO's General Conference approves unanimously the elaboration by 2005 of an international convention regarding the protection of the diversity of cultural contents and artistic expressions
 flecheIntangible Heritage, Cultural Diversity and Preventing Intentional Destruction of Heritage: Key Cultural Issues at UNESCO’s General Conference
 flecheCommunique of the ministerial round table on quality education
 flecheTthe President of Kyrgyzstan emphasizes education and new information and communication technology in an address to UNESCO’s General Conference
 flecheUNESCO’s General Conference to debate preparation of an international convention against doping in sport
 flecheThe First Lady of the United States of America marks the U.S. Return to UNESCO with an Address to the General Conference
 flecheHundred of ministers and five heads of State expected at UNESCO's General Conference
 flecheEGOVOS 3: Open Standards and Libre Software in Government
 flecheUniversidades do Rio de Janeiro debatem a globalização
 flechePress conference by UNESCO Director-General Koïchiro Matsuura on UNESCO-NEPAD seminar
 flecheCivilizations: How we see others, how others see us
 flecheMessage du Directeur général de l'UNESCO à l'occasion de la Journée des droits de l'homme
 flechePhilosophy day at UNESCO
 flecheInauguration de la Bibliotheca Alexandrina : du papyrus au numérique
 flechePatrimoine immatériel : Adoption de la Déclaration d'Istanbul
 flecheL'UNESCO se réjouit du retour des Etats-Unis d'Amérique
 flecheQuatre-vingt ministres de la culture travaillent sur le thème : le patrimoine immatériel, miroir de la diversité culturelle
 flecheLa diversité culturelle, un facteur essentiel du développement durable
 flecheUNESCO Promotes Cultural Diversity and Education at World Summit on Sustainable Development
 flecheDeputy Director-General to inaugurate Youth Tennis Tournament on July 8
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