Ref. :  000041904
Date :  2018-08-23
Language :  Spanish
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Reconocimiento de los derechos de los trabajadores domésticos

Author :  OIT / ILO

Las trabajadoras y los trabajadores domésticos constituyen uno de los grupos más vulnerables a la explotación, la violencia, el acoso y el trabajo forzoso. El Día Internacional del Recuerdo de la Trata de Esclavos y de su Abolición nos recuerda que muchas mujeres terminan atrapadas en situaciones de trabajo abusivo que en algunos casos pueden equivaler a formas modernas de esclavitud.


"Cada día me decía que estoy loca y me tildaba de estúpida. No podía soportarlo. Pero como seguía diciéndomelo a diario, al final me acostumbré. Cada vez que me pegaban me ponía a llorar en un rincón", recuerda Julia * , empleada doméstica filipina que padeció abusos verbales y agresiones físicas de forma ininterrumpida durante más de un año, antes de huir y denunciar su situación a la policía. En todo el mundo, las personas que trabajan en un contexto aislado, sin presencia de terceros, son particularmente vulnerables a la violencia y al acoso en el trabajo. Ello sucede, en particular, a los trabajadores domésticos. Nuestros hogares y seres queridos reciben servicios y cuidados básicos de 67 millones de trabajadores domésticos en todo el mundo; no obstante, con frecuencia son víctimas de varias formas de violencia y acoso, explotación y coacción, en particular abuso verbal y violencia sexual, que en ocasiones pueden provocarles la muerte. Los trabajadores domésticos que viven en el hogar de sus empleadores son especialmente vulnerables. Para muchos de ellos, abusos cotidianos como la falta de descanso y el impago de su salario pueden conllevar fácilmente casos de trabajo forzoso. "Estaba atrapada, no podría escapar. Y no tenía dinero. No me pagaron ni un solo peso. Cada vez que le preguntaba a mi empleadora cuándo iba a recibir mi salario, me decía que lo pensaría", señala Julia. "El motivo subyacente de esa situación es la discriminación", señala Philippe Marcadent, Director de la Unidad de la OIT sobre Mercados laborales Inclusivos, Relaciones laborales y Condiciones de Trabajo. "Con frecuencia no se reconoce a las trabajadoras y los trabajadores domésticas su condición de trabajadores y las mujeres padecen discriminación, al provenir a menudo de grupos pobres o marginados, en particular migrantes y pueblos indígenas". Habida cuenta de ello, varios trabajadores domésticos están organizando y liderando actividades encaminadas a promover el trabajo decente. Zainab y Marcelina, antiguas empleadas domésticas que han pasado a dirigir sus respectivas organizaciones, padecieron violencia y acoso laboral durante años. A pesar de lo difícil que les resulta narrar su historia, lo hacen para dar a conocer al mundo casos reales y alentar a otras trabajadoras domésticas a que alcen su voz. A tenor del debate que mantiene actualmente la OIT sobre la posible adopción de un nuevo instrumento jurídico sobre violencia y acoso en el trabajo, las trabajadoras y los trabajadores domésticos están dando un paso a delante y haciendo oír su voz.
Las normas internacionales pueden constituir herramientas muy eficaces para la protección de trabajadores domésticos. En virtud del Convenio núm. 189 sobre las trabajadoras y los trabajadores domésticos , aprobado en 2011, se reconoció la condición de trabajador a millones de empleados domésticos y se les empoderó para abogar por sus derechos en casos de violencia y acoso. Por otro lado, en el marco del Protocolo de la OIT relativo al trabajo forzoso , aprobado en 2014, los Estados Miembros deben adoptar medidas eficaces para evitar el trabajo forzoso, proteger a las víctimas y velar por el acceso de estas a la justicia. En particular, los países deben garantizar la aplicación de la legislación pertinente a todos los trabajadores en todos los sectores. Esa obligación es especialmente pertinente en el caso de los empleados domésticos, puesto que en determinadas legislaciones nacionales no siempre se reconoce su condición de trabajador, lo que impide que gocen de los derechos y la protección que poseen otros trabajadores. No obstante, a día de hoy, 25 países han ratificado hasta ahora el Convenio núm. 189 sobre las trabajadoras y los trabajadores domésticos , alrededor de 30 países han promulgado legislaciones o políticas que permiten ampliar la protección de los trabajadores domésticos, y únicamente 25 países han ratificado el Protocolo relativo al trabajo forzoso . La función de los gobiernos, empleadores y trabajadores, así como la de los hogares, es fundamental para velar por la protección de los trabajadores domésticos frente a la violencia y el acoso. A raíz de la aprobación del Convenio núm. 189 sobre las trabajadoras y los trabajadores domésticos, la OIT ha aplicado una estrategia internacional encaminada a brindar apoyo a gobiernos, trabajadores y empleadores con el fin de fomentar el trabajo decente para los trabajadores domésticos. En el marco de esa estrategia, la OIT ha prestado asistencia a unos 60 países para ampliar la protección de los trabajadores domésticos, garantizar el cumplimiento de las normas pertinentes, modificar normativas y promover la representación de los trabajadores domésticos y de sus empleadores. En la página web de ILO dedicado a los trabajadores domésticos  puede obtenerse información sobre la experiencia adquirida en varios proyectos a nivel nacional en materia de políticas sobre horarios de trabajo, salarios, seguridad social, migración, inspecciones laborales y tareas de organización. En los sitios web www.ilo.org/domesticworkers  y www.idwfed.org/myfairhome  se facilita información relativa a la promoción del trabajo decente en el hogar, sobre la base de la experiencia adquirida durante los siete años transcurridos desde la aprobación del Convenio sobre las trabajadoras y los trabajadores domésticos, 2011 (núm. 189). *  Testimonio recogido por la Fundación Foro Visayan con el apoyo de la OIT.

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