Ref. :  000034561
Date :  2011-06-25
Language :  French
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Mise en garde de Kofi Annan: la faim pourrait devenir une catastrophe permanente

Le Président de l’Alliance pour une révolution verte en Afrique dénonce l’accaparement des terres


Kofi Annan, Président de l'Alliance pour une Révolution Verte en Afrique, met en garde: la crise actuelle de la sécurité alimentaire, avec près d'un milliard d'individus affamés, pourrait se transformer en catastrophe permanente, mettant en danger la vie de millions de personnes et compromettant la coopération internationale. "Avec le problème du changement climatique, la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle mondiale est l'enjeu de notre époque", a-t-il déclaré.

S'adressant à la 37ème session de la Conférence de la FAO qui élira demain le nouveau Directeur général, l'ancien Secrétaire général des Nations Unies et Prix Nobel de la paix a prononcé la 27ème Allocution à la mémoire de Frank McDougall. "Si les pays ne peuvent faire cause commune pour parvenir à la sécurité alimentaire, le plus fondamental des droits de l'homme, nos espoirs d'une coopération internationale plus globale semblent condamnés", a-t-il déclaré.

Ces dernières années, a-t-il poursuivi, "le monde a renoncé à l'idée d'un but commun fondé sur des valeurs partagées. On a observé une inquiétante avancée du protectionnisme, des interdictions unilatérales d'exportation, de la mainmise sur les terres et d'accords exclusifs répondant aux besoins alimentaires des riches et évinçant les pauvres".

Tous les deux ans, à l'ouverture de la Conférence de la FAO, un discours est prononcé par une éminente personnalité impliquée dans le domaine de l'agriculture et de la lutte contre la faim en hommage à l'Australien Frank Lidgett McDougall, un des pères fondateurs de l'Organisation pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture au sein de ce qui était en 1935 la Société des Nations.


La FAO, chef de file

Kofi Annan a souligné que la FAO peut prendre l'initiative d'accroître la transparence des stocks vivriers mondiaux - ce qui freinerait spéculation et volatilité du marché - en compilant des informations plus précises et plus accessibles sur la quantité et la qualité de ces stocks.

La FAO a annoncé la semaine dernière que les prix alimentaires vont poursuivre leur hausse au cours des 10 prochaines années, menaçant la sécurité alimentaire de millions d'habitants des pays en développement, mais aussi des pays avancés. La production vivrière mondiale devra croître de 70 pour cent pour nourrir une population qui passera de 6,9 milliards d'habitants en 2010 à 9,2 milliards en 2050.


De l'accaparement des terres

Dans son allocution, l'homme d'Etat africain a également dénoncé le phénomène de "mainmise sur les terres" par lequel les pays achètent ou louent la terre d'autres nations pour leur propre sécurité alimentaire.

"Il est alarmant d'apprendre d'un récent rapport que des terres agricoles équivalant à un territoire grand comme la France ont été achetées en 2009 en Afrique par des "hedge funds" et autres spéculateurs", a-t-il dit.

"Il n'est ni juste ni viable que des terres agricoles soient ainsi dérobées aux communautés, ni que de la nourriture soit exportée de pays où les habitants ne mangent pas à leur faim. Les populations locales ne tolèreront pas cet abus - et nous non plus."

M. Annan a cependant indiqué que les grandes fermes commerciales ont un rôle à jouer, en intégrant toutefois leurs activités au sein de leurs communautés, et en servant de plateformes permettant de relier les petits agriculteurs aux chaînes de valeur - marchés, supermarchés et entreprises agroalimentaires.


Plus de recherche-développement

L'ancien Secrétaire général de l'ONU a également insisté sur la nécessité d'accroître la recherche sur les avantages et les impacts des agrocarburants sur la sécurité alimentaire, sur les petits exploitants et les femmes dans l'agriculture.

"Le doublement des rendements céréaliers, sur les superficies cultivées actuelles, ferait de l'Afrique une région à excédent vivrier", a-t-il déclaré.

M. Annan a préconisé l'établissement de règles pour un commerce plus équitable et de subventions à l'agriculture, faisant remarquer que les pays de l'OCDE dépensent plus de 385 milliards de dollars en soutien à leurs agriculteurs.

"Cela représente, selon l'organisation OXFAM, 80 fois le montant dépensé en aide publique à l'agriculture - un chiffre qui avait chuté de plus de 70 pour cent, en valeur réelle, au cours des vingt années précédentes", a-t-il précisé.

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Audio

Tous les discours et allocutions

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Video

Kofi Annan à la FAO

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Photos

Galerie photos

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Liens

Le point sur la faim dans le monde

Situation alimentaire mondiale

Volatilité des prix alimentaires

Conférence de la FAO - Election du Directeur général

Alliance pour une révolution verte en Afrique

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Documents
Allocution de M. Kofi Annan, ancien Secrétaire général des Nations Unies

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Contact

Hilary Clarke
Relations presse, FAO (Rome)
(+39) 06 570 52514
hilary.clarke@fao.org


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