Ref. :  000032929
Date :  2010-01-26
Language :  English
Home Page / The whole website
fr / es / de / po / en

Unemployment reached highest level on record in 2009: Somavia calls for the same policy decisiveness that saved banks to save and create jobs

Author :  OIT / ILO


According to the International Labour Office (ILO) annual Global Employment Trends report, the number of jobless worldwide reached nearly 212 million in 2009 following an unprecedented increase of 34 million compared to 2007, on the eve of the global crisis.

Based on IMF economic forecasts, the ILO estimates that global unemployment is likely to remain high through 2010. In the Developed Economies and European Union unemployment is projected to increase by an additional 3 million people in 2010, while it will stabilize at present levels, or decline only slightly, in other regions.

The ILO also said the number of unemployed youth worldwide increased by 10.2 million in 2009 compared to 2007, the largest hike since 1991.

At the same time, the ILO report shows wide variations in the employment impact of the crisis between regions and countries as well as in labour market recovery prospects.

The report says that coordinated stimulus measures have averted a far greater social and economic catastrophe; yet millions of women and men around the world are still without a job, unemployment benefits or any viable form of social protection.

“As the World Economic Forum gathers at Davos, it is clear that avoiding a jobless recovery is the political priority of today” said ILO Director-General Juan Somavia. “We need the same policy decisiveness that saved banks now applied to save and create jobs and livelihoods of people. This can be done through strong convergence of public policies and private investment”.

Mr. Somavia added: “Each year, the global labour market has expanded by 45 million people therefore recovery measures must target job creation for young men and women entering the labour market for the first time.”

According to the ILO, the share of workers in vulnerable employment (Note 1) worldwide is estimated to reach over 1.5 billion, equivalent to over half (50.6 per cent) of the world’s labour force. The number of women and men in vulnerable employment is estimated to have increased in 2009, by as much as 110 million compared to 2008.

The report also says that 633 million workers and their families were living on less than USD 1.25 per day in 2008, with as many as 215 million additional workers living on the margin and at risk of falling into poverty in 2009.

The ILO report says that it is urgent to establish wide coverage of basic social protection schemes to cushion the poor against the devastating effects of sharp fluctuations in economic activity.

Other key findings:

* The global unemployment rate rose to 6.6 percent in 2009, an increase of 0.9 percentage points over 2007. However it varied widely by region, ranging from 4.4 per cent in East Asia to more than 10 per cent in Central and South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CSEE & CIS) as well as in North Africa.

* The global youth unemployment rate rose by 1.6 percentage points to reach 13.4 per cent in 2009 relative to 2007. This represents the largest increase since at least 1991, the earliest year for which global estimates are available.

* The overall impact of the economic crisis on women and men is far more important than the differences in impact between these groups.

* Preliminary estimates of growth in labour productivity, measured as output per worker, indicate that productivity levels fell in all regions except East Asia, South Asia and North Africa. The largest decline in output per worker occurred in Central and South-Eastern Europe (non- EU) & CIS, - 4.7 per cent, thus reversing part of the gains that were made in the first half of the decade.

* As a result of declining output per worker, working conditions are deteriorating especially in regions where labour productivity was already low preceding the economic crisis, such as in Sub-Saharan Africa.

To address these issues, the ILO constituents which represent the “real economy” have agreed a Global Jobs Pact that contains a balanced set of tried and tested measures to promote a robust response to the employment challenge by focusing on accelerated employment generation, sustainable social protection systems, respect for labour standards, and strengthening social dialogue. The Pact has received strong backing from the G20 heads of state and from the UN General Assembly. Rethinking policies is essential because we will not get out of the crisis by applying the same policies that lead to the crisis in the first place.

Regional outlook

The unemployment rate in the Developed Economies and European Union jumped to 8.4 per cent in 2009, up from 6.0 per cent in 2008 and 5.7 per cent in 2007. The number of unemployed in the region is estimated to have surged by more than 13.7 million between 2007 and 2009, with an increase of nearly 12 million unemployed in 2009 alone. Employment in the industrial sectors has suffered more than employment in agriculture or services.

Overall, despite comprising less than 16 per cent of the global workforce, the Developed Economies and European Union region accounted for more than 40 per cent of the increase in global unemployment since 2007. Unemployment in the Developed Economies and European Union is expected to remain elevated, with a projected increase in the regional unemployment rate to 8.9 per cent in 2010.

Between 2008 and 2009, the largest increases in unemployment rates by region occurred in the Developed Economies and the European Union, which saw an increase of 2.4 percentage points, in Central and South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) & CIS, 2.0 percentage points, and in Latin America and the Caribbean (1.2 points). Similarly, these three regions account for more than two-thirds of the increase in the global number of unemployed in 2009, despite only accounting for 30 per cent of the global labour force. Other regions saw more limited increases in unemployment rates (0.5 points or less).

In sub-Saharan Africa, the unemployment rate is estimated to have risen to 8.2 per cent in 2009 and is likely to show very little change between 2009 and 2010. The limited increase is not reflective of the true impact of the crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and should be seen in conjunction with indicators such as vulnerable employment and working poverty (Note 2).

In North Africa, the overall unemployment rate is estimated to have reached 10.5 per cent in 2009 and is projected to remain elevated in 2010, at 10.6 per cent. This would represent an increase of 300,000 unemployed in 2010 versus 2009. Overall, the weak conditions of labour markets prior to the crisis are likely to make the impact of reduced economic growth more severe, and the region may well need a long period to recover.

The Middle East’s regional unemployment rate has not risen substantially over the 2007-2009 period and is expected to remain relatively unchanged in 2010, at around 9.3 per cent. However, with nearly 23 per cent of workers in the region living with their families on less than USD 2 a day, the impact of the crisis should also be seen in terms of increased vulnerable employment: any reduction in employment quality could also lead to increased poverty.

In Latin America and the Caribbean the unemployment rate is estimated to have risen from 7 per cent in 2008 to 8.2 per cent in 2009 (Note 3), amounting to 4 million additional jobless in 2009. Current estimates also indicate that the share of workers in extreme poverty ranged from 7.0 to 9.9 per cent in 2009, an increase of up to 3.3 percentage points from 2008. In 2010, unemployment is expected to decrease slightly to around 8.0 per cent, reflecting the better outlook towards the end of 2009.

In East Asia unemployment is estimated to have edged up to 4.4 per cent in 2009 from 4.3 per cent in 2008 and 3.8 per cent in 2007. A rapid improvement in the Chinese domestic market, as well as the positive spill-over effects to neighbouring countries, led to an improvement in the economic and labour market figures for the region. The region’s unemployment rate is projected to decline slightly to 4.3 per cent in 2010.

The South-East Asia and the Pacific region includes a number of economies that are highly dependent upon foreign trade and investment flows. The number of workers in vulnerable employment in the region is estimated to have increased by up to 5 million since 2008. The regional unemployment rate is estimated to have risen to 5.6 per cent in 2009, up 0.2 percentage points versus 2007 and is expected to remain steady in 2010.

The Central and South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CSEE & CIS) experienced the most severe shock in terms of economic growth of all regions in 2009, leading to a 2.0 percentage point increase in the unemployment rate, from 8.3 per cent in 2007 to an estimated 10.3 per cent in 2009. The current outlook is for a slight decrease of the unemployment rate down to 10.1 per cent.


For more information on the Global Employment Trends report, please contact the ILO Department of Communication and Public Information at +4122/799-7912 or communication@ilo.org

Notes
Note 1 - Vulnerable employment is defined as the sum of own-account workers and contributing family workers.
Note 2 - The working poor are defined as people who are working but also fall below an accepted poverty line.
Note 3 - This compares with the regional urban unemployment rate for Latin America and the Caribbean estimated at 8.5 per cent (weighted average) estimated by ILO for January-September 2009). Panorama Laboral 2009, ILO Lima.

Other ressources: please click here


Rate this content
 
 
 
Average of 37 ratings 
Rating 2.43 / 4 MoyenMoyenMoyenMoyen
Same author:
 flechePoor working conditions are main global employment challenge
 flecheRecognizing the rights of domestic workers
 flecheNew ILO figures show 150 million migrants in the global workforce
 flecheThe future of work depends on the future of women at work
 flecheMore than half of the world’s older persons lack quality long-term care
 flecheG20 starts to tackle inequality
 flecheGrow the economy with a well-balanced diet
 flecheG20 caught in weak economic and jobs recovery spiral
 fleche2030 development agenda: Major breakthrough for world of work
 flecheCutting back workers' protection does not lead to stronger growth
 flecheNew ILO study points to the long-term impact of child labour
 flecheInformally employed Syrian refugees, working under harsh conditions, further strain Jordanian labour market
 flecheRana Plaza: Never again
 flecheTechnology lightens the load for factory inspector
 flecheWhere has inequality gone up and where has it gone down?
 flecheMembers of g7+ to discuss creating jobs for peace through Fragile-to-Fragile Cooperation
 flecheGlobal survey shows rising women’s participation in cooperatives
 flecheProgress on gender equality at work remains inadequate
 flechePrivate sector services and the care economy, key engines of job creation
 flecheUnemployment on the rise over next five years as inequality persists
 flecheGlobal momentum means more women move into management
 flecheLack of higher education leaves millions of young people out of decent work in developing countries
 flecheGlobal health protection crisis leaves almost 40% of the world’s population without any coverage
 flecheGreece needs to address risk of a prolonged social crisis
 flecheCooperatives’ considerable clout in the fight against child labour
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends 2014: Risk of a jobless recovery?
 flecheMore than 70 per cent of the world population lacks proper social protection
 flecheWorld Day Against Child Labour
 flecheSeasonal work brings year-round benefits
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends 2014: The risk of a jobless recovery
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends 2014: The risk of a jobless recovery
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends 2014: The risk of a jobless recovery
 flecheWorking poverty reduction stalled
 flecheThe pride of working women
 flecheHow can sports help to promote youth employment?
 flecheAn unprecedented gathering deep in the Amazon jungle
 flecheIs small still beautiful?
 flecheWork sharing can save jobs in times of crisis
 flecheA strategic alliance for youth employment
 flecheRise of middle-class jobs in the developing world could spur growth
 flecheLabour market gender gap: Two steps forward, one step back
 flecheMore than 70 per cent of workers lack unemployment protection
 flecheYouth unemployment getting even worse
 flecheWage cuts may hurt growth
 flecheILO: Greater gender equality in politics is good news for the world of work
 flecheTransition to green economy could yield up to 60 million jobs, ILO says
 flecheStepping up the fight against child labour
 flecheILO chief on world economy: Too much focus on finance, too little on society
 flecheYouth employment
 flecheILO study says workplace inequality in Europe has increased significantly since start of financial crisis
 flecheILO warns youth job crisis threatens social cohesion, calls for more and better jobs for youth
 flecheShort term indicators of the labour market
 flecheVoices on Social Justice
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends 2012: Preventing a deeper jobs crisis
 flecheShort-term employment and labour market outlook and key challenges in G20 countries
 flecheSocial protection floor key to addressing crises and social instability
 flecheWorld of Work Report 2011- ILO says world heading for a new and deeper jobs recession, warns of more social unrest
 flecheQuestions and Answers on global trends and challenges on occupational safety and health
 flecheXIX World Congress on Safety and Health at Work
(11-15 September 2011, Istanbul - Turkey)

 flecheQuestions and answers on the ILO response to challenges in the Arab World
 fleche100th ILO annual Conference decides to bring an estimated 53 to 100 million domestic workers worldwide under the realm of labour standards
 flecheMain findings of the ILO study 'The Global Crisis: Causes, responses and challenges'
 flecheGlobal economic crisis opens up new space for discrimination at work, ILO says
 flecheILO: learning lessons from success key to economic improvement for the Least Developed Countries
 flecheILO says fair and equitable policies are key to sustainable economic recovery
 flecheILO report warns weak jobs recovery to continue through 2011 - youth employment a world priority
 flecheSocial security plays critical role in times of crisis, but still eludes much of the world
 flecheOslo Conference calls for commitment to recovery focused on jobs
 flecheWorld economic crisis has spurred a record increase in youth unemployment says ILO
 flecheYouth employment in crisis: Questions and answers on the situation of youth on the labour market
 flecheThe State of Child Labour Today
 flecheILO says 21 million jobs in G20 saved by crisis response policies, but labour market slack remains high
 flecheILO warns “early exit” from stimulus measures could prolong jobs crisis
 flecheILO report says temporary workers among the worst hit by the economic crisis, urges balance between flexible labour markets and workers’ protection
 flecheDespite continued rise in unemployment, measures taken by G20 governments will save up to 11 million jobs in 2009, ILO says
 flecheFacing the global jobs crisis: Migrant workers, a population at risk
 flecheCommunity tourism: respecting nature, local culture and indigenous peoples’ rights while on vacation
 flecheILO welcomes new support for the Global Jobs Pact from the UN Economic and Social Council
 flecheILO adopts “Global Jobs Pact” aimed at creating jobs, protecting workers and stimulating economic recovery
 flecheILO says crisis increases risk of girls becoming child labourers
 flecheHeads of State, government and leaders from the world of work tackle the global jobs crisis
 flecheILO says job losses are increasing due to economic crisis
 flecheNew ILO report says “cost of coercion” to workers in forced labour surpasses USD 20 billion per year
 flecheILO marks its 90th anniversary with global dialogue for decent work and a fair globalization
 flecheThe ILO and the quest for social justice : 90 years of ILO history
 flecheILO calls for urgent global jobs pact to forestall "prolonged and severe" employment crisis
 flecheILO warns economic crisis could generate up to 22 million more unemployed women in 2009, jeopardize equality gains at work and at home
 flecheMicrofinance and the real economy: impacts and outcomes of the global economic crisis
 flecheILO meeting to discuss employment crunch in the financial sector
 flecheUnemployment, working poor and vulnerable employment to increase dramatically due to global economic crisis
 flecheWorld of Work Report 2008: Income inequalities in the age of financial globalization
 flecheWorld of Work Report 2008 - Global income inequality gap is vast and growing
 flecheLandmark new report says emerging green economy could create tens of millions of new “Green Jobs”
 flecheWomen migrant workers: seizing opportunities, upholding rights
 flecheILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization
 flecheInternational Day of Cooperatives - Cooperating in times of crisis
 flecheHigh-level meeting in Turin from 1 to 3 July on “The European social model in the context of globalization”
 flecheWorld Day Against Child Labour 2008 ─ ILO says education is the “right response” to child labour
 flecheILO sees a significant improvement in Workplace attitudes to HIV/AIDS
 flecheILO Director-General calls for new multilateral consensus to head off global slowdown and recession
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends for Women 2008
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends for Women 2008: more women enter the workforce, but more than half of all working women are in vulnerable jobs
 flecheThe challenge to make chocolate child labour free
 flecheILO projects global economic turbulence could generate five million more unemployed in 2008
 flecheILO calls for new efforts to support people with disabilities in the world of work
 flecheTrade unions and globalisation: trends, challenges and responses
 flecheGreen jobs and global warming: ILO to discuss new initiatives for tackling climate change in the world of work
 flecheKey Indicators of the Labour Market - Executive summary
 flecheNew ILO report says US leads the world in labour productivity, some regions are catching up, most lag behind
 flecheILO says Asia and the Pacific labour forces expected to grow by over 200 million by 2015
 flecheThe Decent Work Agenda in Africa: 2007–2015
 flecheWhen global leaders discuss business and labour principles - Global Compact Leaders Summit 2007
 flecheNew ILO Global Report on Equality at Work 2007
 flecheEmployment and working conditions in Europe: How much can one work?
 flecheILO study warns on the feminization of working poverty
 flecheILO and WTO issue new joint study on "Trade and employment: Challenges and policy research"
 flecheILO, UNDP join forces to promote growth for decent jobs
 flecheGlobal Employment Trends 2007
 flecheReversing the brain drain in China: the return of the 'sea turtles'
 flecheNew ILO study says youth unemployment rising, with hundreds of millions more working but living in poverty
 flecheILO Director-General lauds formation of new global union federation representing 166 million workers
 flecheThe global jobs crisis:
Address the growing imbalance between growth and jobs creation

 flecheRealizing decent work in Asia
 flecheAsia and Pacific region faces massive jobs gap
 flecheILO to hold Asia and Pacific Regional Meeting in Busan, Republic of Korea
 flecheRussia needs migrant workers to support economic growth
 flecheSaving lives, protecting jobs: Strategic HIV/AIDS responses by enterprises (SHARE)
 flecheRecognizing the rights of the guardians of the forest: "pygmies" in Cameroon
 flecheGATS, Migration, and Labor Standards
 flecheILO hails new UN Declaration on strengthening global efforts to promote Decent Work for poverty reduction and sustainable development
 flecheGiving a fair deal to the world's 86 million migrant workers
 flecheNew ILO Report shows marked decline in child labour worldwide
 flecheILO annual jobs report says global unemployment continues to grow, youth now make up half those out of work
 flecheIs the rising international integration of products and services good for labour markets in the developed world?
 fleche"Looking for greener pastures": Nurses and doctors on the move
 flecheILO adopts sweeping new charter for maritime sector
 flecheLabour migration in the twenty-first century: E Pluribus, Unum?

 flecheILO annual jobs report says global unemployment continues to grow, youth now make up half those out of work
 flecheGlobalization failing to create new, quality jobs or reduce poverty
 flecheTripartite Meeting on Promoting Fair Globalization in Textiles and Clothing in a Post-MFA Environment
 flecheVocational Education and Training
 flecheInternational Conference: Fair Globalization - Safe Workplace - Policies, Strategies and Practices for Sustainable Development
 flecheMicrofinance is our business – Cooperating out of Poverty
 flechePresident Abdelaziz Bouteflika calls for a social dimension of globalization
 fleche93rd annual Conference of the ILO - Delegates pave the way for urgent action on key labour concerns

 flecheILO urges ban on child labour in small-scale mines and quarries
 flecheSituation of workers in occupied Arab territories continues to deteriorate
 flecheGlobal Report 2005: A global alliance against forced labour
 flecheILO Regional Meeting expands social agenda for Europe and Central Asia
 flecheThe report: "A fair globalization - Creating opportunities for all"
 flecheNew ILO report sees weak global job growth in 2004 - Says European job growth remains static
 flecheNew UN decision makes fair globalization a core issue of the world agenda in 2005
 flecheKöhler, Horst
 flecheSomavia, Juan
 flecheUN General Assembly adopts resolution on world commission report on fair globalization
 flecheHalf the world's workers living below US$2 a day poverty line
 flecheMicrofinance paves the way to decent work
 flecheNew ILO book explores "Decent Working Time Deficit" in the industrialized countries
 flecheNew ILO report examines future of work and quality in the media, culture and graphical sector
 flecheNew ILO programme to tackle discrimination, integration of migrant workers in Europe
 flechePreparatory Technical Maritime Conference concludes successfully. Delegates forge new Convention for the maritime industry
 flecheLeaders from North and South join forces for a fair globalization
 flecheILO Director-General Addresses Extraordinary Summit of African Union says, " good national governance will not succeed unless we have good global governance"
 flecheEconomic security strengthens tolerance and happiness as well as growth and development
 flecheYouth unemployment at all time high, new ILO report says half the world's jobless are under 24
 flecheILO issues first global analysis of HIV/AIDS impact on the world of work estimates 36.5 million working age persons now have HIV, 28 million lost to world labour force by 2005
 fleche92nd annual Conference of the ILO concludes its work
 flecheWorld Commission says globalization can and must change, calls for urgent rethink of global governance
 flecheWorld Commission says globalization can and must change, calls for urgent rethink of global governance
 flecheGlobal unemployment remains at record levels in 2003 but annual ILO jobs report sees signs of recovery
 flecheEn Indonésie, la mondialisation remet en question l'ébénisterie traditionnelle
 flecheDelegates to examine how to fight poverty, create jobs
 flecheWorking out of poverty
 flecheQuatrième réunion de la Commission mondiale sur la dimension sociale de la mondialisation
13
SEARCH
Keywords   go
in 
Translate this page Traduire par Google Translate
Share

Share on Facebook
FACEBOOK
Partager sur Twitter
TWITTER
Share on Google+Google + Share on LinkedInLinkedIn
Partager sur MessengerMessenger Partager sur BloggerBlogger
Other items
where is published this article: