Ref. :  000025896
Date :  2007-02-15
Language :  English
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Climate change and the EU’s response

What is the problem?

Climate change is happening. There is an overwhelming consensus among the world’s leading climate scientists that global warming is being caused mainly by carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' emitted by human activities, chiefly the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation. These gases remain in the atmosphere for many decades and trap heat from the sun in the same way as the glass of a greenhouse.

The latest science report from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published on 2 February 2007, represents the most authoritative and up-to-date global scientific consensus on climate change. It finds that the warming of the global climate system is "unequivocal" and accelerating. The global average temperature has risen by 0.76°C over the past 100 years, with Europe warming faster than the average, by around 1°C. The 15 hottest years on record have all occurred during the last 20 years, 11 of them since 1995. The second half of the 20th century was the warmest period in the northern hemisphere for at least 1,300 years. The rate of sea level rise has almost doubled from 18 cm per century between 1961 and 2003 to 31 cm per century in 1993-2003.

The report points to a greater than 90% probability that increases in man-made emissions of greenhouse gases have caused most of the temperature increase seen since the middle of the 20th century. The current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane, another greenhouse gas, are the highest for at least 650,000 years.

The IPCC working group projects that temperatures and sea levels will rise further this century. The global average temperature is projected to increase by between 1.1 and 6.4°C. Its best estimate, assuming no further action is taken to reduce emissions, is a temperature rise of between 1.8 and 4.0°C and a further rise in sea level of between 18 and 59 mm. However, the projections of sea level rise may be underestimated as they do not include the full effects of changes in ice flows.

What impacts is climate change expected to have?

The warming of the global climate system is already evident in the increases in average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising sea levels. The impacts of climate change are expected to become progressively severe as temperatures rise. There is strong scientific evidence that the risks of irreversible and possibly catastrophic changes would greatly increase if global warming exceeded 2°C above the pre-industrial temperature. The EU's position is therefore that the objective of global action must be to keep the temperature rise within this 2°C limit.

The impacts of climate change are generally forecast to include the following:

* Extreme weather events - storms, floods, droughts and heat waves - will become more frequent, causing human suffering and economic damage. It is likely that tropical typhoons and hurricanes will become more intense, with larger peak wind speeds and more heavy rain.
* Changes in rainfall patterns will put pressure on water resources in many regions, which will in turn affect both drinking water supplies and irrigation. Increases in the amount of precipitation are very likely in high latitudes and the tropics whereas decreases are likely in most sub-tropical regions
* Warm seasons will become dryer in the interior of most mid-latitude continents, increasing the frequency of droughts and land degradation. This will be particularly serious for areas where land degradation, desertification and droughts are already severe. Developing countries will suffer particularly, and tropical diseases will extend their geographical range
* In Europe agricultural yields are projected to start declining if the temperature rises beyond 2°C above the pre-industrial level. With a global temperature increase to 2.5°C above pre-industrial levels, 2.4 to 3.1 billion more people worldwide are likely to suffer from water scarcity
* Geographical shifts in the occurrence of different species and/or the extinction of species will occur. Cold weather mammals like polar bears could be especially threatened.
* Projections show that by 2080 cold winters could disappear almost entirely and hot summers, droughts and incidents of heavy rain or hail could become much more frequent.

What about impacts in Europe?

According to the new IPCC projections, the temperature in Europe may climb by a further 4 - 7 °C this century as emissions of greenhouse gases continue building up.

A 2004 report [1] by the European Environment Agency identified a broad range of current and future impacts of climate change in Europe, including the following:

* Almost two out of every three catastrophic events since 1980 have been directly attributable to floods, storms, droughts or heat waves. The average number of such weather and climate-related disasters per year doubled over the 1990s compared with the previous decade. Economic losses from such events have more than doubled over the past 20 years to around €8.5 billion annually. This is due to several reasons, including the greater frequency of such events but also socio-economic factors such as increased household wealth, more urbanisation and more costly infrastructure in vulnerable areas.
* The annual number of floods in Europe and the numbers of people affected by them are rising. Climate change is likely to increase the frequency of flooding, particularly of flash floods, which pose the greatest danger to people.
* Glaciers in eight of Europe's nine glacial regions are in retreat, and are at their lowest levels for 5,000 years.
* Climate change over the past three decades has caused decreases in populations of plant species in various parts of Europe, including mountain regions. Some plants are likely to become extinct as other factors, such as fragmentation of habitats, limit the ability of plant species to adapt to climate change.

What are the expected costs of climate change, and of action to control it?

The economic costs of climate change and the economic advantages of taking strong and early further action to control it have been highlighted by the Stern Review of the economics of climate change, commissioned by the UK government and published in October 2006.

The Review has further underlined that the benefits of prompt action to reduce emissions far outweigh the costs, and that the earlier action is taken the less costly it will be. The report estimates that without further action to limit emissions, the damage caused by climate change would eventually reduce global GDP by between 5% and 20% a year.

Unabated climate change could create risks of major disruption to economic and social activity, later this century or early next, on a scale similar to the upheavals caused by the two world wars and the 1930s economic depression, it warns. By contrast, taking early action to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that prevents climate change from reaching dangerous proportions would cost around 1% of GDP.

What international agreements are in place to fight climate change?

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol provide the international framework for combating climate change.


The UNFCCC, the first international measure to address climate change, was adopted in May 1992 and came into force in March 1994. So far 189 governments - almost all the world’s governments - have ratified it.

The Convention's goal is to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous human interference with the climate system. It obliges Parties to establish national programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and to submit regular reports.

It also encouraged industrialised countries to stabilise their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. The EU comfortably met this target.

The UNFCCC is based on the principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities’. This recognises that while all countries have in interest in controlling climate change, the developed world is responsible for most of the historical build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and should therefore lead in reducing emissions.

Parties to the UNFCCC meet annually to review progress and discuss further measures. A number of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms are in place to keep track of greenhouse gas emissions.

Kyoto Protocol

In December 1997, in the Japanese city of Kyoto, governments took a further step by adopting a protocol to the UNFCCC - the Kyoto Protocol.

Building on the UNFCCC framework, the Protocol sets legally binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions from originally 38 industrialised countries and the European Community (the EU-15). It also introduces innovative market-based implementation mechanisms - the so-called Kyoto flexible mechanisms - aimed at reducing the cost of curbing emissions.

Under the Protocol, industrialised countries are required to limit or reduce their emissions of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), the most important and common gas, methane, nitrous oxide, and the industrial gases hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. The overall reduction required amounts to a cut of around 5% below the level in the chosen base year (often 1990), and is to be achieved during the first Kyoto Protocol “commitment period” from 2008 to 2012. A five-year commitment period was chosen rather than a single target year to smooth out annual fluctuations in emissions due to uncontrollable factors such as weather. There are no emission targets for developing countries.

The EU-15 (the 15 countries that were Members of the EU at the time of ratification of the Protocol in 2002) took on a commitment to reduce their combined greenhouse gases emissions to 8% below base year levels (1990 in most cases). Under the EU Decision to ratify the Protocol, this collective target has been translated into differentiated, legally-binding national targets for each EU-15 Member State, ranging from a reduction of 28% by Luxembourg to an increase of 27% for Portugal. Of the 12 Member States that have acceded since 2004, 10 have individual reduction commitments of 6 or 8% under the Protocol. Only Cyprus and Malta do not have Kyoto targets.

The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005. So far 168 countries and the European Community have ratified it. Two developed countries that originally signed the treaty have not ratified: the US has rejected the Protocol, whereas Australia has decided not to ratify it. This means the Kyoto emission targets now apply to 36 developed countries plus the European Community (EU-15).

What are the Kyoto flexible mechanisms?

The Kyoto Protocol creates three market-based mechanisms, known as the Kyoto flexible mechanisms: emissions trading between governments with Kyoto targets, the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation.

The aim of these mechanisms is to allow industrialised countries to meet their targets cost-effectively while stimulating investment in, and the transfer of clean technology to, emissions-saving projects in developing countries and economies in transition. The rationale is that emission reductions have the same impact on the atmosphere regardless of where they are made, so it is sensible to make them wherever it costs least. Detailed rules and supervisory structures have been set up to ensure that these mechanisms are not abused.

Emissions trading

Emissions trading can take place between countries with Kyoto targets, ie industrialised nations. Reflecting the emission targets agreed in Kyoto and under the EU ‘burden sharing’ agreement, each country will be assigned a fixed maximum amount of emissions that it may emit over the commitment period (2008-2012). Countries that emit less can sell the unused quota to others that emit more. This will allow reductions to take place where they are cheapest, reducing compliance costs.

Inspired by this model, the EU has developed and implemented its own company-level emissions trading scheme. This ‘cap and trade’ system, launched on 1 January 2005, covers all 27 EU Member States and is the first and biggest international emissions trading scheme in the world. It has developed rapidly and is now driving the fast-expanding global carbon market.

Under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), Member States set a national ‘cap’ on CO2 emissions from over 10,000 energy-intensive plants (power plants, steel factories, oil refineries, paper mills, and glass and cement installations). Together these installations account for almost half of the EU's CO2 emissions. Within the limits of their national cap, governments issue allowances to each installation to emit a certain level of CO2 each year. These allowances are tradable.

Companies that emit less than the number of allowances they receive can sell the surplus to companies that have problems staying within their limits, or for which emissions reduction measures are more expensive than buying allowances on the market. Any company may also increase its emissions above the level of its allowances by acquiring more allowances from the market.

By putting a price on emissions and a value on emissions saved, the scheme has made climate change a boardroom issue for the companies involved and given them a permanent incentive to minimise CO2 emissions and fully integrate emission costs into their decision making. The system induces operators to make emission cuts where they are cheapest, thereby ensuring that reductions are made at the lowest possible cost to the economy. It also fosters innovation - companies have an incentive to improve their energy efficiency and invest in climate-friendly technologies.

The EU ETS is being closely watched by businesses and governments around the world and serving as an important reference point for others developing their own schemes, eg seven north-eastern US states, California, and states and territories in Australia. The EU has indicated its willingness to link the EU ETS to other cap-and- trade schemes to form a global emissions trading network.

Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) allow industrialised countries to achieve part of their emission reduction commitments by investing in emission-saving projects abroad and counting the reductions achieved toward their own commitments. JI covers projects in other industrialised countries with Kyoto targets, while CDM projects are carried out in developing countries. The two mechanisms lower compliance costs, promote the transfer of advanced technologies to developing countries and economies in transition, and foster cooperation between countries with Kyoto targets.

CDM credits can be generated retroactively, from 2000 onward, while JI credits must be generated during the 2008-2012 period. The CDM is thus already operational. A condition for the issue of credits is that the projects result in real, measurable and long-term emission savings that are additional to what would have happened without the projects. Several EU Member States intend to buy CDM and JI credits to help them meet their Kyoto targets. Collectively they have budgetted more than €3 billion to do so.

The EU Emissions Trading Scheme is linked to CDM and JI. Companies covered by the scheme can use emission credits from most types of CDM projects and from JI projects (from 1 January 2008) to offset their emissions in the same way as emission allowances. This link is driving investment in CDM and JI projects by European companies, in addition to the purchases planned by governments.

What will happen if a country misses its target?

The compliance regime for the Kyoto Protocol is among the most comprehensive and rigorous in the international arena. If a Party fails to meet its emissions target, the Protocol requires it to make up the difference in the second commitment period (after 2012), with an additional 30% penalty. It must also develop a compliance action plan, setting out the actions that it will take to meet the target and the timetable for doing so. In addition, its eligibility to “sell” under the Protocol’s international emissions trading system will be suspended.

However, for the EU-15 Member States, the Kyoto Protocol compliance procedures will apply only if the EU-15 as a whole misses its 8% reduction target. Should this occur, each Member State will be held to the target set out in the Decision to ratify the Protocol and the Community will be held to be in non-compliance.

The remaining 10 Member States with Kyoto targets (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia) are bound to their individual targets as set out in the Protocol, both under the Protocol’s non-compliance procedures and under EC law.

Member States are committed in EC law to meet their targets, which are enforceable through infringement procedures by the European Commission.

What action is the EU taking to combat climate change?

The fight against climate change is a priority for the European Commission, as it is for EU Member States. EU-level action is an essential complement to Member States' own efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Combating climate change is the first of the 6th Environmental Action Programme’s four priority areas and one of the main commitments made under the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. The need to reduce emissions has been progressively integrated into key EU policy areas such as agriculture, energy, regional policy and research.

Central to the Commission’s action to ensure the EU and Member States meet their Kyoto targets is the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP), launched in 2000. Under this umbrella, the Commission, Member States and stakeholders have identified and developed a range of cost-effective to reduce emissions. So far, some 35 such measures have been implemented. They include the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and legislative initiatives to promote renewable energy sources for electricity production, expand the use of biofuels in road transport and improve the energy performance of buildings.

A second ECCP was started in October 2005 to identify further cost-effective measures to reduce emissions up to and beyond 2012 and to develop strategies for adapting to the climate change that is already under way. This work has led to the Commission's recent proposals to include aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme from 2011 and to strengthen the EU strategy for reducing CO2 emissions from new cars through legislation. Other areas of ECCP-2 work include reviewing the EU Emissions Trading Scheme with a view to its revision from 2013 and the development of a legislative framework for the environmentally safe use of carbon capture and geological storage technology.

In January 2007 the Commission put forward an integrated package of measures to establish a new energy policy for Europe aimed at stepping up the fight against climate change and boosting the EU's energy security and competitiveness. The proposals put the EU on course towards becoming a low-carbon economy.

The package sets a range of ambitious targets to be met by 2020. Energy efficiency would be improved by 20%, the market share of renewable energy sources increased to 20% and the share of biofuels in transport fuels raised to 10%. On greenhouse gas emissions the Commission proposes that, as part of a new global agreement to prevent climate change from reaching dangerous levels, developed countries should cut their emissions by an average of 30% from 1990 levels. As a concrete first step towards this reduction, the EU would make a firm independent commitment to cut its emissions by at least 20% even before a global agreement is reached and irrespective of what others do.

What progress is the EU making towards the Kyoto targets?

National and EU-level action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has enabled the EU to ‘decouple’ emissions from economic growth. Between the base year (1990 in most cases) and 2004, the EU-15 reduced its collective emissions by 0.9% while the economy grew by 32%. EU-25 emissions were down by 7.3%. These reductions compare, for instance, with a 15.8% rise in US emissions between 1990 and 2004 as the US economy expanded by 52.6%.

Projections show that the EU-15’s 8% reduction target can be achieved in 2010 provided that all actions planned by Member States are fully implemented and deliver the emission savings anticipated. However, seven EU-15 Member States have projected that they will exceed their emission limits: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain (see Annex for details). All of the new EU-10 Member States were on track to achieve their individual targets. If all actions planned are taken, the total EU-25 emissions reduction would reach 10.8% in 2010.

What happens after the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period?

The increasingly evident changes taking place in the global climate, together with major recent publications such as the Stern Review and the latest IPCC science report, have further underlined the urgent need for further action to control global emissions of greenhouse gases. The window of opportunity to keep global warming below 2°C is narrowing as temperatures rise, and the costs associated with climate change will keep increasing the longer further action is delayed.

The Commission and EU Member States therefore strongly support the development of a new global climate change agreement. This should succeed the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period at the end of 2012 and provide the international framework for action that is ambitious and comprehensive enough to limit the temperature increase to 2°C.

Talks on post-2012 action were launched at the annual UNFCCC ministerial conference in Montreal in December 2005 at the initiative of the EU and other countries. The talks are taking place on two parallel tracks. On one track, the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are discussing new emission targets for industrialised countries post-2012. A detailed work programme for these discussions, as well as a comprehensive review of the Protocol to take place in 2008, were agreed at the annual ministerial held in Nairobi in November 2006.

On the second track, the UNFCCC Parties, including those that are outside Kyoto such as the US and Australia, are conducting a dialogue on long-term cooperative action against climate change. This dialogue is scheduled to conclude at the next annual ministerial in December 2007. The EU's view is that it should be followed up by negotiations on a comprehensive global agreement on post-2012 action. Negotiations on this should be completed by the end of 2009 at the latest to ensure the agreement enters into force by the end of Kyoto's first commitment period.

What are the European Commission’s proposals for further action to combat climate change?

The key elements of the EU position on further action were outlined in a Communication published by the Commission in February 2005 [2] They include five elements:

* Broad participation by all major emitting countries
* inclusion of all emitting sectors, including aviation, maritime transport and forestry (to address deforestation)
* increased research and development and uptake of low-carbon technologies,
* continued use of market mechanisms to keep reduction costs low
* adaptation to the impacts of climate change since some effects are unavoidable

The EU Summit in Brussels in March 2005 affirmed these principles and initiated an intensive outreach effort, engaging the EU in dialogues with a range of countries on further action to combat climate change.

The Commission's January 2007 package of energy and climate change measures buildson this earlier work. It includes a Communication [3] setting out concrete proposals for the content of a new global climate change agreement aimed at limiting the temperature rise to 2°C above the pre-industrial level. Remaining within this limit is both technically feasible and economically affordable if the international community acts swiftly.

As mentioned above, the Commission is proposing that developed countries commit to cutting their emissions by an average of 30% from 1990 levels by 2020. As a concrete first step towards the 30% reduction by developed countries, and to set an example to our partners, the EU would make a firm independent commitment to cut its emissions by at least 20% even before a global agreement is reached and irrespective of what others do. The energy-related measures proposed in the January 2007 package, together with measures already in place such as the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, would deliver this reduction.

It would be essential for developing countries – except for the least developed nations – to broaden their contribution as well since their emissions are projected to overtake those from developed countries by around 2020. Developing countries would need to start slowing their emissions growth as soon as possible and then reduce their emissions in absolute terms after 2020.

To control climate change effectively it will also be essential to halt tropical deforestation completely within the next two decades and then reverse it through afforestation or reforestation schemes. Deforestation currently contributes around 20% of global greenhouse emissions, more than transport.

The Commission's analysis shows that these actions by developing and developing countries are the essential next steps if the world is to have a fair chance of staying within the 2°C temperature limit. This will require global emissions to peak before 2025 and then fall by as much as 50% of 1990 levels by 2050. This implies reductions in developed countries' emissions of 60-80% from 1990 levels by mid-century.

How much would this all cost?

The Commission's impact assessment shows that taking action to limit climate change is fully compatible with sustaining global economic growth. Investment in a low-carbon economy will require around 0.5 % of total global GDP over the period 2013–2030. This would reduce global GDP growth by just 0.19 % per year up to 2030, a fraction of the expected annual GDP growth rate of 2.8%, and this is without taking into account associated health benefits, greater energy security and reduced damage from avoided climate change. This is a small insurance premium to pay for significantly reducing the risk of irreversible damage, particularly when compared with the Stern Review's estimate that uncontrolled climate change will cost between 5 and 20% of GDP in the longer term.

Company-level emissions trading schemes such as the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) will be a key tool to ensure that developed countries can reach their future targets cost-effectively. The international framework for combating climate change after 2012 should enable comparable trading schemes in different regions to be linked together. In this way the EU ETS would be the pillar of a global carbon trading network. The scope of the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism should be expanded after 2012, for instance to cover entire national sectors rather than individual projects.

Emission reductions by developing countries are also perfectly feasible without undermining their economic growth or poverty reduction policies. The Commission's impact assessment estimates that implementing policies to control emissions would reduce the overall GDP growth of developing countries in 2020 by a only a very small amount, and this is without taking account of co-benefits such as avoided impacts of climate change. Many policy options are available to developing countries where the benefits can outweigh the costs, for example by increasing energy efficiency, promoting renewable energy, improving local air quality or capturing methane from sources such as landfills as a cheap source of energy.

Information about future action against climate change can be found in MEMO/05/42 and about emissions trading in MEMO/06/2 and MEMO/05/84

Comprehensive information about EU climate change policies is available at:

Information about the UN framework can be found at:

To see “Annex: Projected emissions limitations or reductions by EU-25 Member States up to 2010”, go to


[1] “Impacts of Europe's changing climate”, EEA Report No 2/2004, available through:

[2] Winning the Battle against Global Climate Change. See

[3] Limiting global climate change to 2 degrees Celsius: The way ahead for 2020 and beyond.

Référence: MEMO/07/58

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 flecheThe European Migration Policy Centre: a new platform linking policy-making and research
 flecheConnecting the European Union and Asia: Internet for global research
 flecheInternational day of Zero Tolerance against female genital mutilation - 6 February 2008
 flecheNew study results support EU pension initiative to aid worker mobility
 flecheEuropean Commission makes computer-assisted translation easier and more accessible
 flecheLead market initiative to unlock innovative markets
 flecheSlovenia: official launch of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue
 flecheCommission sees need for a stronger more consumer-friendly single market for Online music, films and games in Europe
 flecheCommission announces the adoption of 35 programmes to implement "European territorial cooperation", one of the objectives of Cohesion policy 2007-2013
 flecheBackground on Schengen enlargement
 flecheEnlargement of the Schengen area: achieving the European goal of free movement of persons
 flecheState aid: Commission approves UK film support schemes
 fleche675 textile workers in Malta to be helped by EU globalisation fund
 flecheEuropean Capitals of Culture 2013: pre-selection meetings in Slovakia and France
 flecheBring the peoples of Europe ‘Together in diversity!’ Campaign launch of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue 2008
 flecheClimate change: Bali conference must launch negotiations and fix ‘roadmap’ for new UN agreement
 flecheTerritorial cohesion goes to the heart of the EU's political agenda
 flecheMeasuring progress, wealth and the well-being of nations
 flecheCommission welcomes Council's endorsement of the first-ever European Agenda for Culture
 flecheEU researchers earn less than their counterparts in the US, Australia, Japan and India
 fleche"Regional policy: how can governance help us to respond to the new challenges of the 21st century?"
 fleche"Climate and Environment – factors of peace and development in the XXI century"
 flecheEuro-Mediterranean Partnership: advancing regional co-operation to support peace, progress and inter-cultural dialogue
 flechePromoting regional co-operation in the Mediterranean to support peace, progress and inter-cultural dialogue
 flecheCultural statistics - 2007 Edition
 flecheEU steps up the fight against undeclared work
 flecheCultural statistics : The cultural economy and cultural activities in the EU27
 fleche"Gender equality in cohesion policy 2007 – 2013: a critical element for success!" – Discourse by Danuta Hübner
 fleche"The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): a new instrument for cooperation in the European Union" - speech by Carlos Fernández de Casadevante at the "Crossing borders: Networking and best practice supporting growth and jobs" seminar of the 2007 Open Days
 fleche"La plateforme pour les Partenariats Innovants du PNUD - pour une approche territoriale du développement" - Communication de Christophe NUTALL au séminaire "Regional Policy in a global perspective" des Open Days 2007
 flecheQuestions and Answers on an integrated maritime policy for the European Union
 flecheENPI Regional Strategy Paper 2007-2013 and Regional Indicative Progamme 2007-2010 for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
 flecheWorldwide corporate investment in R&D grew by 10% last year, according to a new European Commission study
 flecheMaking it happen: launch of 2007 OPEN DAYS European Week of Regions and Cities
 flecheCommunication from the Commission - "The European Interest: Succeeding in the age of globalisation"
 flecheEU Job Days bring together jobseekers and employers (24-29 september 2007)
 flecheFinal Report : High Level Group on Multilingualism
 fleche"Enhancing motivation for language learning" - the recommendations of the High Level Group on Multilingualism
 flecheCommissioner Orban: "More young Europeans learn foreign languages and much earlier than their parents"
 flecheThe drive for eCall accelerates: the Czech Republic, Portugal and Spain come on board
 flecheEnergising Europe: A real market with secure supply
 flecheLanguages open doors: Celebrating the European Day of Languages
 fleche"Global English is not enough for global business": A Conference in Brussels on linguistic skills and competitiveness
 flecheEuropean Commission is world's largest public investor in nanotechnology
 flecheCommission proposes a global alliance to help developing countries most affected by climate change
 flecheMontreal Protocol: one of the most successful environmental agreements celebrates its 20th anniversary
 flecheStrengthening and monitoring measures for integration policies in the EU: the Commission adopts the Third Annual Report on Migration and Integration
 flecheCommission wants to involve young people better in society
 flecheRegional policy Commissioner Danuta Hübner today spoke to the 2nd Annual Conference of NEEBOR (Network of Eastern External Border Regions), held in Olsztyn, Poland
 flecheCommission proposes actions to foster 21st Century e-Skills
 fleche"Splendeurs du patrimoine linguistique": discours de Leonard Orban, Commissaire européen chargé du Multilinguisme
 flecheThe European Migration Network: Providing up-to-date information and data on migratory developments
 flecheTeachers need good education too! The Commission proposes to improve the quality of teacher education in the European Union
 flecheErasmus Mundus II — the reference for international cooperation in higher education
 flecheMigration Management - Solidarity in Action: new EU financial support to be made available in 2007
 fleche"The future development of EU migration policy"
 flecheFirst two applications for The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) money approved by Commission
 fleche"UE–Chine-Afrique: d'une relation de concurrence à un partenariat triangulaire pour le développement de l'Afrique"
 flecheA single database for all EU-related terminology (InterActiveTerminology for Europe) in 23 languages opens to the public
 flecheEurobarometer qualitative study on the Europeans, culture and cultural values
 flecheCommission assesses impact of funding for regions, launches debate on next round of cohesion policy
 flecheCommunication from the Commission on a European agenda for culture in a globalizing world
 flecheFirst-ever European strategy for culture: contributing to economic growth and intercultural understanding
 flecheErasmus celebrates 20 years breaking records of participation
 flecheEuropean Commission welcomes adoption of negotiating mandates for new Free Trade Agreements with India, Korea and ASEAN
 flecheMandelson warns lack of trust could threaten EU-Russia relationship
 flecheCommission proposes stronger partnership to improve access to foreign markets for EU business
 flecheLa Commission européenne, la BEI et 6 Etats membres lancent le Fonds Fiduciaire pour les infrastructures en Afrique
 flecheEuropean partners join lively debate on flexicurity
 flecheCommission calls for more predictable and more effective development aid
 flecheThis is the Europe we want!
 flecheA vision for the single market of the 21st century
 flecheCommission welcomes international agreement to boost trade in new pharmaceuticals
 flecheMEDIA 2007: €755 million boost for Europe's film industry
 flecheMedia pluralism in the Member States of the European Union
 flecheMedia pluralism: Commission stresses need for transparency, freedom and diversity in Europe's media landscape
 flecheComment le marché unique est-il perçu?
 flecheNew EU energy plan - more security, less pollution
 flecheSlovenia ready to adopt the euro
 flecheBulgaria and Romania latest to join the EU
 fleche"Knowledge of territorial trends and structures are crucial for strategic programming", Danuta Hübner tells Brussels conference
 flecheEU welcomes signing of new Central European Free Trade Agreement
 fleche„Europe – succeeding together“ : Presidency Programme 1 January to 30 June 2007
 fleche8th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs - “Tampere conclusions”
 flecheFAQ: UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity – a new instrument of international governance
 flecheConclusions of Euro-Mediterranean Ministerial Conference on Strengthening the Role of Women in Society
 flecheThe Commission launches new scholarship scheme outside the EU
 flecheErasmus turns 20
 flecheEurope sees progress on Corporate Social Responsibility
 fleche29 ways to promote inter-cultural understanding: examples of best practice from around Europe
 flecheEuropean Commission publishes the study on the Economy of Culture in Europe
 flecheThe economy of culture in Europe
 flechePresentation of the European Commission's 2007 Work Programme
 flecheLa proposition de décision du Parlement européen et du Conseil visant à déclarer 2008 " Année européenne du dialogue interculturel "
 flecheBrazil and the global economy
 flecheGlobalisation : trends, issues and macro implications for the EU
 flecheTowards an EU Strategy on the Rights of the Child
 fleche"There is no more time left": Peter Mandelson statement to the press following suspension of WTO Doha negotiations
 fleche"Key role for border regions in the EU jobs and growth strategy", Danuta Hübner tells Saarbrücken conference
 flecheAn arrangement which infringes national competition law may infringe Community law at the same time
 flecheCommission provides €20 million food aid to the Palestinians
 flecheThe euro: a currency in search of a deeper market, enhanced economic reform and a stronger voice on the world stage
 flechePresident Barroso calls on G8 to lay the foundations for a stable energy future and makes new aid proposal for Africa
 flecheChairs' Conclusions: Euro-Med ECOFIN Ministerial Meeting
 fleche"South and East Mediterranean economies, like Europe, would gain from further economic reforms"

 flecheLe Comité ministériel euro-méditerranéen examine à Tunis les orientations futures de la FEMIP
 flecheMondialisation et Travail décent pour tous
 fleche“Cross border cooperation: encourage a new bottom-up generation of projects”
 flecheEU-US Summit: signature of new agreement to boost cooperation in higher education and vocational training
 flecheWhite paper on a European Communication Policy
 flecheWine: Profound reform will balance market, increase competitiveness, preserve rural areas and simplify rules for producers and consumers
 flecheCommission proposes to upgrade EU’s relations with South Africa to a Strategic Partnership
 flecheTrade and competitiveness
 flecheCommission promotes 'decent work in the world' to fight poverty and promote fair globalisation
 flecheEuropean Charter for Film Online endorsed by major industry players
 flecheEvasion of anti-dumping duties under scrutiny
 flecheCommission: Bulgaria’s and Romania’s accession possible in 2007, if preparation efforts are intensified
 flecheCommission spring economic forecasts 2006-2007: growth rebounds
 flecheEnlargement, two years on: all win as new Member States get richer
 flecheCommission actions since the Chernobyl Disaster
 flecheEuropean Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy
Islam in Europe – from dialogue to action

 flecheCommissioner Michel sends a warning signal on shortage of doctors and nurses in Africa
 flecheEurope, Latin America and the Caribbean – working together for greater social solidarity
 fleche"Dialogue of Cultures – clash of civilizations or clash of ignorance?"
 fleche«La dimension sociale de la Mondialisation dans la politique de développement»
 flecheThe European Commission proposes that 2008 be "European Year of Intercultural Dialogue"

 flecheEuro-Mediterranean Policy / Preparation of APEM
 flecheEuropean Neighbourhood Policy
 fleche«A regional strategy for peace, security and development for the Horn of Africa»
 flecheThe Commission welcomes the CARIM first annual Report on Mediterranean Migration
 flecheEuropean Institute of Technology: the Commission proposes a new flagship for excellence
 flecheCommission proposes up to €500 million per year for a new European Globalisation adjustment Fund to support workers
 flecheTrade in services
 flecheEuropean Commission steps up efforts to put Europe’s memory on the Web via a “European Digital Library”
 flecheEU and the Caribbean: Commission proposes a new partnership for growth, stability and development
 flecheNew Regional aid Guidelines 2007-2013 - European Union / Provisional text
 flecheInauguration of the EAS: The European Administrative School (EAS), the first inter-institutional training centre celebrates its official inauguration on 10 February 2006
 flecheAu service des régions: politique régionale de l'UE
 flecheCouncil decision on the conclusion of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
 flecheState aid: Commission adopts new regional aid guidelines for 2007-2013
 flecheAfrica’s “silent tsunamis”: Commission adopts humanitarian aid decisions worth €165.7 million
 flecheEuropean Union adopts new ‘tariff-only’ import regime for bananas from 1 January 2006
 flecheEU radically reforms its sugar sector to give producers long-term competitive future
 flecheRising international economic integration: opportunities and challenges
 flecheCommissioner Mariann Fischer Boel urges Council to adopt bold and responsible sugar reform
 flecheProposing the launch of a european transparency initiative
 flecheEU should implement democratic safeguards in stalled Constitution now without waiting for ratification, says CoR President
 flecheCommission welcomes the support by the EU Council and the Parliament to offer a complete untying of aid
 flecheEU and Morocco reach agreement on Galileo
 flecheBird Flu - European Commission earmarks €30 million for Asia
 flechePublic procurement: EU and China strengthen cooperation
 flecheEuropean scientists develop H7N1 avian flu vaccine
 flecheEuropean values in the globalised world
 flecheAdoption of a Unesco Convention on Cultural Diversity
 flecheEuropean Commission launches PLAN D for Democracy, Dialogue and Debate
 flecheEuropean Commission adopts “European Union Strategy for Africa”
 flecheLatest report underlines progress in the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue
 flecheThe European Union opens accession negotiations with Croatia
 flecheEuro area economy gains momentum despite clouds on the horizon
 flecheEconomic Partnership Agreements: EU and Caribbean Region launch third phase of negotiations
 flecheDon’t stop learning ! The European Commission promotes adult education with increased funding
 flecheClimate change: Commission proposes strategy to curb greenhouse gas emissions from air travel
 flecheEuropean Day of Languages: half of the EU’s population can speak a language other than their mother tongue
 flecheDéclaration, au nom de l'Union européenne, sur la reprise unilatérale par l'Iran des activités de conversion de l'uranium dans l'usine d'Ispahan
 flecheEuropean Commission welcomes Israeli disengagement from Gaza and prepares further measures to support the peace process
 flecheAvian Influenza: Commission asks Member States to step up surveillance
 flecheEuropean Commission actions in the field of aviation safety
 flecheEuropean Commission mobilizes extra €58 M to the Global Fund to accelerate the fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in developing countries
 flecheEuropean Commission launches a four-year Campaign to raise public awareness on sustainable energy
 flecheCounterfeiting and piracy: the Commission proposes European criminal-law provisions to combat infringements of intellectual property rights
 flecheA European Union Agency to protect and promote fundamental rights
 flecheFunding for European cinema: significant increase in new Member States’ applications for EU support
 flecheEuropean Documentation Centres
 flecheEuropean documentation centres in the European Union
 flecheDecision of the european parlement and of the concil establishing for the period 2007-2013 the programme "Citizens for Europe"to promote active European citizenship
 fleche La BEI et la Banque Mondiale intensifient leur coopération sur les Pays Partenaires Méditerranéens
 flecheConférence de presse pré Conseil européen de M. José Manuel BARROSO, Président de la Commission européenne
 flecheCultural diversity : a major step towards the adoption of a UNESCO Convention
 flecheAnother successful year for Erasmus : student and teacher mobility rose by almost 10% in 2003/2004
 flecheEU Trade Commissioner urges African Trade Ministers: make Doha the “Round for Africa”
 flecheCommission paves the way for renewal of EU Sustainable Development Strategy
 flecheThe Doha Development Agenda
 flecheCommission presents a set of proposals for enlarging the Schengen area to the new member states

 flecheAddressing the concerns of young people in Europe: the Commission adopts a communication on youth policies
 fleche Environment: Green Week 2005 gets to grips with climate change
 flecheCommission White Paper on market access for developing countries: opening the door to development

 flecheCommission tables first elements for a genuine European Space Policy
 flecheThird progress report on economic and social cohesion
 flecheThe EU and the US: a bilateral partnership for global solutions
 flecheChinese textiles imports investigation: use of the urgency procedure
 flecheEU proposes WTO consultations with China on two textile product categories
 fleche Partenariat Union européenne/États-Unis: la Commission propose de renforcer les relations économiques et politiques
 fleche President Barroso meets Afghan President Hamid Karzai – and announces details of Afghan reconstruction programmes for 2005/2006
 flecheNouveau site Web et budget de 6 millions d’euros pour l’établissement de relations en vue de la recherche de partenaires commerciaux appropriés dans l’Union européenne élargie
 fleche Mr Olli Rehn, Member of the European Commission, responsible for Enlargement
"Prioritisation: where should Turkey focus its energies"
Forum Istanbul - Istanbul, 5 May 2005

 flecheThe new Europe Direct information network: Europe on your doorstep
 flecheImproving and extending the use of ICT to make the most of Europe’s cultural and audiovisual heritage
 flecheThe European Union on your doorstep: new generation of information relays launched
 flecheEuropean Commission welcomes breakthrough in WTO agriculture talks
 flecheNew tools for knowledge and growth: EU scientists propose priorities for research infrastructures
 flecheClimate change: Commission hails entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol
 flecheWomen and the elderly are crossing the digital divide, but the poor still lag behind, says new EU report
 flecheTsunami: Commission takes further action to help rebuild fisheries and aquaculture sector in tsunami-hit areas
 flecheErasmus Mundus: 69 universités supplémentaires participent au programme
 flecheTranslating the Monterrey Consensus into Practice: the Contribution by the European Union
 fleche European Commission launches public debate on economic migration
 flecheCommission pledges €140 million to help eliminate the threat of anti-personnel land mines
 flecheEuropean handbook on integration
 flecheFirst European handbook on integration of immigrants presented by European Commission
 flecheEU-India Summit: towards a strategic partnership
 flecheQuestions for the general public concerning the future European Fundamental Rights Agency
 flecheDiscours de M. António Vitorino à la Conférence des Présidents des commissions compétentes en matière d'immigration des parlements de l'UE
 flecheEU-WTO: In WTO review of trade policy EU will stress its support for the multilateral trade system
 flecheWhat Europeans think of the EU’s farm policy
 flecheDeveloping countries: the Commission proposes system of trade preferences for 2006-2008
 flecheCommission appeals against WTO sugar ruling
 flecheEnlargement - Turkey's progress towards accession
 flecheLa Commission approuve un rapport sur la gouvernance européenne (2003-2004)
 flecheCommission launches new portal giving all citizens of the enlarged EU access to better information on their rights
 flecheCommission grants Euro 93 million to upgrade European Research and Education Internet (GÉANT)
 flecheStrengthening economic governance and improving the Stability and Growth Pact
 flecheCountdown 2015 - Sexual & Reproductive Health & Rights for all : London, 31 August - 2 September 2004
 flecheGeneral information concerning in-service training (stages) with the European Commission
 flechePortail sur les possibilités d'éducation et de formation dans l'ensemble de l'espace européen
 flechePresident-designate Barroso unveils his team
 flecheImmigration & asylum : current state of play
 flecheBarroso, José Manuel
 flecheWith oil prices surging, Loyola de Palacio recalls the necessity of having a concerted European approach to the issue of security of energy supplies
 flecheEuropean Commission approves 5.75 million euros for crises in Asia

 flecheThe role of broadband networks in securing knowledge-based regions
 flecheThe humanitarian crisis in Greater Darfur, Sudan- response of the European Commission - UPDATE EU by far the biggest donor

 flecheEndangered wildlife: Commission wants tighter rules to protect wild animals and plants from unsustainable international trade
 flecheGeneral overview of active WTO dispute settlement cases involving the EC as complainant or defendant
 flecheEU’s Position on the Middle East Conflict
 flecheEU-Latin American and Caribbean Summit
 flecheLamy, Pascal
 flecheCox, Pat
 flecheProdi, Romano
 flecheEuropean Commission Statement on the European Parliament elections
 flecheCommission proposes action to secure the social dimension of globalisation
 flecheEU-Latin American and Caribbean Summit: moving the strategic partnership forward
 flecheEU takes action to foster international sustainable fishing
 flecheWTO-DDA: EU ready to go the extra mile in three key areas of the talks
 flecheStatement of President Prodi on enlargement
 flecheCommission takes further steps to ensure access to medicines for poor countries
 flecheCroatia: Commission recommends opening of accession negotiations
 flecheCommission prepares the necessary steps to welcome a united Cyprus into the European Union on 1 May 2004
 flecheWTO India - GSP: WTO confirms differentiation among developing countries is possible
 flecheCommission adopts new safe harbour for licensing of patents, know-how and software copyright
 flecheAir pollution: Commission takes legal action against 10 Member States
 flecheCommission Spring Economic Forecasts 2004 -2005 for the euro area, the European Union and the Acceding and Candidate countries
 flecheCommission recommends concrete action to promote growth and employment in the enlarged Union
 flecheEurope needs more scientists: EU blueprint for action
 flecheThe European Commission and Philip Morris International confirm discussions
 flecheNew EU Centre for Disease Prevention and Control adopted
 flechePresidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 25/26 march 2004
 flecheCommission concludes on Microsoft investigation, imposes conduct remedies and a fine
 flecheKey data on health 2002 Health in the EU under the microscope
 flecheEU acts to increase transparency, efficiency and predictability in the use of trade defence
 flecheEU-Canada: Commission agrees design of future EU-Canada Trade and Investment Enhancement Agreement
 flecheBiodiversity: Commission sounds alarm on need to reduce global biodiversity loss
 flecheDeveloping countries: Commission adopts action plan to help developing countries fight agricultural commodity dependency and support the development of the cotton sector in Africa
 flecheEuropean Union signs landmark tourism accord with China today in Beijing
 flecheLa Commission appelle à un renforcement des relations entre l'UE et la Russie
 flecheTrade implications of EU enlargement: Facts and Figures
 flecheThe future of WTO
 flecheWestern Balkans proceed with economic transition
 flecheRomano Prodi President of the European Commission. 2004 Spring Report. Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament.
 flecheCommission reports on progress towards meeting 'Johannesburg' commitments
 flecheEuropean Research Network extended to the Balkans with EU Support
 flecheCommission calls on Member States to keep up the momentum in tackling poverty and social exclusion
 flecheEuropean Commission stands behind the Kyoto Protocol
 flecheUS Steel: EU welcomes termination of US steel safeguard measure
 flecheCommission launches preparations for Balkan participation in Community programmes
 flecheWTO and agriculture: Fischler's five tests to kick-start stalled talks
 flechePresident Prodi statement World Aids Day
 flecheEC action against HIV/AIDS
 fleche2003 review of the EU economy: On the verge of new patterns of economic growth?
 flecheEU- WTO: European Commission proposes to put Doha Round of trade talks back on track
 flecheCommission discusses amendments to EU Constitution
 flecheEU-India Summit: An opportunity to strengthen relations
 flecheCommission adopts five new humanitarian aid decisions worth over EUR 11.5 million
 flecheCommission and United Nations join forces to launch humanitarian appeals for 2004
 flecheCommission proceeds with excessive deficit procedure for Germany
 flecheEU-Mercosur: Ministerial meeting to roadmap free trade negotiations
 flecheState of play on GMO authorisations under EU law
 flecheComenius Week
Highlighting the European dimension at school

 flecheBulgaria, Romania and Turkey make significant progress towards accession criteria
 flecheAcceding countries expected to be ready for accession, urged to tackle remaining issues
 flecheForeign Sales Corporations (FSC): Commission prepares for the imposition of countermeasures on US products
 flecheEU/Russia Summit, Rome, 6 November
 flecheRemoving obstacles to development: Commission proposes EUR 250 million to support African-led peace keeping operations in Africa
 flecheAccelerating the fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria: Commission commits further EUR 170 million to the Global Fund
 flecheAfghanistan: Commission Proposes EUR 79.5 million for Fourth Reconstruction programme
 flecheEnvironmental democracy: Commission promotes citizens' involvement in environmental matters
 flecheEU Cohesion Policy: Commissioner Barnier visits Cyprus
 flecheSingle-hull oil tankers banned from European ports from 21 October 2003
 flecheHIV/AIDS: European Research provides clear proof that HIV virus cannot pass through condoms
 flecheA european knowledge society in a global community
 flecheCommission provides support to OLAF and Belgian authorities on investigation into fraud in grain trade prices
 flecheEU complies with WTO ruling on Hormone beef and calls on USA and Canada to lift trade sanctions
 flecheEU-Andean Community: Second Round of Negotiations for new Political Dialogue and Co-operation Agreement
 flecheEurobarometer : latest survey shows growing support for key EU policies in acceding countries
 flecheCommission acts to boost efficiency and flexibility of EU development assistance to benefit the poor
 flecheCommission proceeds with excessive deficit procedure for France assesses
 flecheCinedays 2003: long live European cinema!
 flecheEuropean industry leaders and EU policymakers meet to plan for security research
 flecheEuro area economy demonstrates initial signs of recovery
 flecheEuropean Commission, eight acceding countries and US sign Bilateral Investment Understanding
 flecheTrade in Cotton: constructive proposals to solve African problem
 flecheCommission adopts opinion on the European Constitution
 fleche"State of play of Agriculture Negotiations"
 flecheWorld cotton day: EU sympathises with concerns of African countries
 flecheKey areas for decision in Cancun
 flecheEverything you wanted to know about Cancun
 flecheJoin EU Trade Commissioner Pascal Lamy in an on-line chat September 4 2003
 flecheEuropean Commission regrets the request for a WTO panel on GMOs
 flecheEC and US propose a framework for a joint approach on agricultural questions in WTO
 flecheTrade in agricultural goods and fishery products. EU – US Joint Text on Agriculture

 flecheWTO Farm Talks/Cancun: EU’s Fischler calls for renewed effort to bridge differences
 flecheEU-US Summit - Washington
 flecheThessaloniki European Council - Presidency Conclusions
 flecheAccess to medicines: EU clears plan to ensure delivery of cheap medicines to developing countries
 flecheLe Conseil Éducation adopte les critères de référence européens
 flecheOMC SERVICES - L'UE propose d'améliorer les échanges commerciaux - au bénéfice des pays en développement
 flecheLa Commission propose de créer un Fonds européen pour l'eau doté d'un budget d'1 milliard d'euros
 flecheEU survey results: Europe goes on-line for health information, but still prefers more traditional sources
 flecheLa lutte contre les maladies transmissibles dans les pays en développement: la Commission resserre son programme d'action
 flecheMultilingualism in the European Commission: A long-standing tradition and an asset to the European Union
 flecheSustainable agriculture for developing countries: the options offered by life sciences and biotechnology
 fleche'Your Voice in Europe': new Commission portal aims to give citizens a bigger role in policy making
 flecheAgriculture: plus grande ouverture du marché et réduction du soutien faussant les échanges
 flecheCombating digital illiteracy, promoting virtual campuses and virtual twinning of schools: the e-learning programme's aims (2004-2006)
 flecheLa Commission place la politique industrielle au premier plan de ses préoccupations
 flechePascal Lamy salue l'achèvement des négociations sur l'adhésion de l'Arménie à l'OMC
 flecheForum européen du tourisme: promotion du développement durable dans le tourisme
 flecheLibéralisation des services : l'Union européenne lance un consultation publique sur les demandes pour l'accès au marché européen
 flecheEU - Russia economic and trade relations: an overview
 flecheL'Union européenne va négocier des accords de partenariat avec des Etats d'Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique
 flecheL’UE poursuit sa bataille pour étendre l’accès aux médicaments pour les pays en développement
 flecheL'Europe lance un partenariat avec les pays en voie de développement pour lutter contre le sida, la malaria et la tuberculose
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