Ref. :  000013450
Date :  2004-06-30
Language :  English
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General overview of active WTO dispute settlement cases involving the EC as complainant or defendant

1. INTRODUCTION

At present, the EC is actively involved in 261 WTO disputes: in 16 of these cases the EC is the complaining party while in the remaining 10 cases the EC is on the defending side. Those 26 cases relate to the EC’s relations with 8 of its trading partners (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Korea, Thailand and the US).


1.1. Dispute settlement activities against the US

After the remarkable success in the “steel safeguards” case, dispute settlement activities against the US continue to represent the vast majority of our overall dispute settlement activities since the Community has presently 13 active WTO disputes underway with the United States. In 10 of these cases it is the Community which is the complaining party, being the defendant only in 3 cases (GMOs, Hormones, and Trademarks/Geographical Indications).

Regarding the substance of our offensive cases with the US, a majority of them (6) concerns the misuse of trade defence instruments (Anti-dumping, CVD and Safeguards) as well as subsidy related issues. Another important category (3) in our disputes with the US relates to intellectual property rights (trademarks and geographical indications, copyrights and patents). Finally, a sensitive category is constituted by health and environmental measures, with the new case on GMOs and the "old" Hormones dispute.

In terms of economic sectors covered, it should be noted that almost half of our offensive
cases (4) relate to the steel sector.

As far as procedural steps in the WTO are concerned, 7 cases are at the implementation stage (Byrd Amendment, Section 211 of the Omnibus Act (Havana Club), FSC, 1916 Anti-Dumping Act, a case involving 12 CVD orders on European firms, Section 110 of the Copyright Act cases and Hormones). 3 cases are at panel stage (Trademarks/Geographical Indications, GMOs, and "zeroing"). The remaining 3 cases are at the consultations stage (Section 337 of the 1930 Tariff Act on Copyrights, Carousel and US sunset reviews on certain steel products).1 Defensive cases where one single panel was composed on request of multiple complainants are counted as one.


1.2. Disputes with other third countries

As far as other third countries are concerned there are at present 4 cases at the implementation stage (Argentina - Hides and skins brought by the EC, EC - AD duties on malleable fittings brought by Brazil, EC – Hormones brought by Canada, EC-GSP brought by India), 8 cases at panel stage (Australia, Brazil and Thailand against the EC - Sugar subsidies regime, EC - Geographical indications brought by Australia (together with the US – see above), EC against the Korean Shipbuilding subsidies, EC – GMO brought by Canada and Argentina (together with the US – see above), EC - CVD measures on DRAM brought by Korea, EC against Australia - Sanitary and phytosanitary measures for agricultural and food products, EC - Customs classification of frozen boneless chicken cuts brought by Brazil and Thailand, EC - Shipbuilding Subsidies brought by Korea), and 2 at consultations stage (EC against India - Import restrictions under EXIM 2002-2007 and EC against India - 27 antidumping cases,). (See new developments in bold)

I – ARGENTINA

OFFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 155 - Hides and skins (procedural stage: implementation) On 16 February 2001, the DSB adopted a panel report condemning certain aspects of the Argentinean regulations affecting the export of raw hides and skins, as well as some discriminatory elements of VAT and Income Tax regulations. A WTO arbitrator ruled on 31 August 2001 that the reasonable period of time for implementation would expire on 28 February 2002.
Argentina has taken a series of steps to implement the recommendations and rulings of the DSB with respect to both the customs procedures and the internal tax discrimination. In light of these steps towards full compliance and of the exceptional economic difficulties faced by Argentina, the EC and Argentina concluded on 25 February 2002 a procedural agreement preserving the right by the EC to have recourse to Articles 21.5 and 22.2 DSU procedures at a later stage. Since then, there has been further progress in the implementation of the WTO ruling, notably through the amendment of Resolucion 2235 of 1996 (the main measure subject to the dispute settlement procedure) by Resolucion General 1399 of 18 December 2002.

DEFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 293 – EC – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products (GMOs) (procedural stage: panel) On 14 May 2003, Argentina requested consultations on certain measures concerning GMOs. Argentina argues that there is a suspension of approvals and/or undue delays in the approval of GMOs and GM food in the EU which is contrary to several WTO agreements (GATT, SPS, TBT, and AoA). Furthermore, Argentina considers that the restrictions imposed by several Member States on the sale or use of approved GMOs and GM food are inconsistent with WTO rules.

Consultations were held on 19 June 2003. A panel was established on 29 August 2003. After some discussions on panel composition, the complainants suddenly decided to request the WTO Director General to appoint the panellists, which he did on 4 March 2004. The panellists are: Christian Haberli (Switzerland - Chairman), Mohan Kumar (India) and Akio Shimizu (Japan). The panel procedure is ongoing.

II – AUSTRALIA

OFFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 287 - Quarantine regime for imports (procedural stage: Panel) On 4 April 2003, the European Communities requested WTO consultations on the measures applied by Australia to protect human, animal and plant health against risks posed by imports of agricultural and food products (sanitary and phytosanitary measures).

These measures are thought to be contrary to the SPS Agreement, in particular Articles 4.1, 5.1 and 5.6. Consultations were held in Geneva on 8 May 2003 but failed to settle the dispute. The EC therefore requested that the DSB establish a panel. The panel request was established on 7 November 2003. At this stage, the panel has not yet been composed.

DEFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 265 - Sugar subsidies (procedural stage: Panel) On 27 September 2002, Australia requested WTO consultations on Council Regulation (EC) 1260/2001 on the European Communities' common organisation of markets and all other legislation, regulations, administrative policies and other instruments relating to the EC regime for sugar and sugar containing products. Australia considers that the EC sugar regime (and most notably the so-called C-sugar) is inconsistent with Articles 3.3, 8, 9.1(a) and (c), 10.1 of the Agreement on Agriculture, Articles 3.1(a) and 3.2 of the SCM Agreement, Article III:4 and XVI of GATT 1994. Consultations were held on 21-22 November 2002. Australia requested the establishment of a Panel on 9 July 2003. This request was first considered at the DSB meeting of 21 July 2003. The panel was established when the request was tabled, for the second time, in the DSB meeting of 29 August 2003. Upon request from Australia, Brazil and Thailand, the DSB established a single panel for the three disputes DS265, DS265, DS283. After several rounds of unsuccessful attempts by the parties to agree on the selection of the panellists, the Director-General of the WTO composed the panel on 23 December 2003, upon request from the complainants. The panel proceedings have started thereafter, and the first oral hearing took place from 30 March to 1 April. The issuance of the panel’s final report to the parties is currently expected for early September 2004.

(2) DS 290 – Trademarks & geographical indications (procedural stage: panel) On 17 April 2003, Australia requested WTO consultations regarding Regulation No 2081/92 on geographical indications. Consultations were held 27 May 2003. Australia requested the establishment of a panel for the first time on 29 August 2003. The panel request argues that Regulation No 2081/92 is contrary to the TRIPs agreement (Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 16, 20, 22, 24, 41, 42, 63), Articles I and III:4 of the GATT, and Article 2 TBT.

The panel was established at the DSB meeting on 2 October 2003. The Director-General of the WTO composed the panel on 13 February 2004. . The EC filed its first written submission on 25 May 2004. The Panel is expected to issue its final report to the parties on 30 November 2004.

III – BRAZIL

DEFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 219 - EC- Anti-Dumping duties on imports of malleable fittings from Brazil (procedural stage: implementation) Brazil’s complaint focuses on the anti-dumping duties adopted and imposed by the EC (Council Regulation (EC) no 1784/2000 of 11 August 2000) on imports of malleable cast iron tube or pipe fittings originating in Brazil. Brazil requested consultations with the EC pursuant to Article 4 of the DSU, Article XXIII of GATT 1994 and Article 17 of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of GATT 1994 (Anti-Dumping Agreement). Above consultations were held in Geneva on 7 February 2001 without results. On 8 June 2001, Brazil requested the establishment of a WTO panel. It claims that the invitation of the investigation and the imposition and collection of provisional and definitive anti-dumping duties referred to above violate GATT 1994 Articles I and VI and several provisions of the AD Agreement (Articles 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 and 15).

The WTO panel has been established at the DSB meeting of 24 July 2001. Discussions took place between the parties in search of an amicable solution. To that effect the parties agreed on 15 January 2002 to suspend the panel proceeding until 1 March 2002. The proceedings were further suspended until 5 April 2002. At the request of Brazil panel proceedings were resumed on 22 April 2002. The final report was issued to the disputing parties on 10 December 2002 and represents a success for the EC, the panel having rejected practically all Brazilian claims raised under the AD Agreement. The panel report was circulated to the WTO membership on 7 March 2003. Brazil notified the DSB on 23 April 2003 of its decision to appeal. Due to the time required for completion and translation of the Report, the Appellate Body will not be able to circulate its Report by 23 June 2003, but it will do so no later than 22 July 2003. .

The AB report was finally circulated on 22 July 2003 and found overwhelmingly in favour of the EC. In view of the number of the original Brazilian claims (around 40) and the nature of the three claims accepted by the panel/AB (two closely linked procedural issues relating to non-disclosure of information plus zeroing), the panel report as modified by the AB can be qualified as a major success for the EC. The Commission services are already working on the proper implementation of the DSB rulings and recommendations following the adoption of the panel and AB reports on 18 August 2003. The EC engaged in discussions with Brazil to determine a mutually agreed RPT in accordance with DSU Article 21.3(b). According to the agreement reached, the RPT was fixed to 7 months and expired on 19 March 2004. In implementation of the relevant DSB rulings and recommendations, Council regulation No 436/2004 of 8 March 2004 was published. Through this Regulation the EC reassessed its initial findings by taking fully into account the findings and conclusions set out in the Panel and the AB reports. The Regulation was already notified to the WTO.

(2) DS 266 - Sugar subsidies (procedural stage: Panel)

On 27 September 2002 Brazil requested WTO consultations on Council Regulation (EC) 1260/2001 on the European Communities' common organisation of markets and all other legislation, regulations, administrative policies and other instruments relating to the EC regime for sugar and sugar containing products. Brazil considers that the EC sugar regime (and most notably the so-called C-sugar) is inconsistent wit Articles 3.3, 8, 9.1(a) and (c), 10.1 of the Agreement on Agriculture, Articles 3.1(a) and 3.2 of the SCM Agreement, Article III:4 and XVI of GATT 1994. Consultations were held on 21-22 November 2002. Brazil requested the establishment of a Panel on 9 July 2003. This request was firstconsidered at the DSB meeting of 21 July 2003. The panel was established when the request was tabled, for the second time, in the DSB meeting of 29 August 2003. Upon request from Australia, Brazil and Thailand, the DSB established a single panel for the three disputes DS265, DS265, DS283. After several rounds of unsuccessful attempts by the parties to agree on the selection of the panellists, the Director-General of the WTO composed the panel on 23 December 2003, upon request from the complainants. The panel proceedings have started thereafter, and the first oral hearing took place from 30 March to 1 April. The issuance of the panel’s final report to the parties is currently expected for early September 2004.


(3) DS 269 - Frozen chicken cuts (procedural stage: panel)

On 11 October 2002, Brazil requested WTO consultations on the recent EC Commission Regulation No. 1223/2002 of 8 July 2002 concerning the classification of certain goods (frozen chicken cuts). Brazil claims that through this Regulation its commerce has been accorded treatment less favourable than that provided in the EC Schedules in contravention of the EC obligations under Articles II and XXVIII of the GATT 1994. WTO consultations took place in Geneva on 5 December 2002. A second round of consultations took place on19 March 2003. On 19 September 2003 Brazil submitted its first request for the establishment of a panel with respect to the EC’s customs classification of frozen boneless chicken. Brazil claims that through its classification practices/measures the EC has nullified and impaired benefits accrued to Brazil in violation of Articles II and XXIII of the GATT 1994. The panel was established at the DSB meeting of 7 November 2003. Subsequently, the DSB at its meeting of 21 November decided to establish a single panel to examine both claims (identical) brought by Brazil and Thailand (DS 286). Through a joint letter dated 17 June 2004, Brazil and Thailand requested the WTO Director General to determine the composition of the Panel. The Panel was composed by the Director General on 28 June 2004.

IV – CANADA

DEFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 292 – EC – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products (GMOs) (procedural stage: panel) On 13 May 2003, Canada requested consultations on certain measures concerning GMOs. Canada argues that there is a suspension of approvals of GMOs and GM food in the EU which is contrary to several WTO agreements (GATT, SPS, TBT, and AoA). Furthermore, Canada considers that the restrictions imposed by several Member States on the sale or use of approved GMOs and GM food are inconsistent with WTO rules. Consultations were held on 25 June 2003. A panel was established on 29 August 2003. After some discussions on panel composition, the complainants suddenly decided to request the WTO Director General to appoint the panellists, which he did on 4 March 2004. The panellists are: Christian Haberli (Switzerland - Chairman), Mohan Kumar (India) and Akio Shimizu (Japan). The panel procedure is ongoing.

V – India

OFFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 270 - Import Restrictions maintained under India's EXIM policy 2002-2007 (procedural stage: consultations)
India continues to maintain restrictions on over 600 products in her 2002-2007 EXIM policy. In 1998 consultations were held to address a range of products of concern to the EC contained in the then 1997-2002 EXIM policy. Following the consultations India was provided with a list of priority products for early removal, and since then, an up until the publication of the new EXIM policy in 2002, there has only been modest improvement. New consultations were requested on 23 December 2002, with India accepting on 28 December. The United States’ request to join the consultations was accepted by India, and they were held on 17 February 2003in a constructive manner. India responses to the questions that had been sent to them in advance, in relation to the 101 products cited in our consultation request, and most importantly reinforced our resolve in relation to the products of most concern to us (as reported in the past to the 133). The 2003 EXIM review announced in March of this year went some way to addressing EU concerns, notably those covering pharmaceutical products. This was welcome news. However India continues to maintain restrictions on a number of items raised during the consultations which remain of importance for EU exporters. The Commission is pursuing discussions with India with a view to reach a mutually acceptable solution.

(2) DS304 –Anti-Dumping Measures - (procedural stage: consultations)
On 8 December 2003, the EC requested consultations with India concerning antidumping measures on imports of certain EC products. 27 products are at stake, which account for more than € 50 millions of EC exports: Methylene Chloride; Phenol; Vitamin A Palmitate; Para Hydroxy Phenyl Glycirine Base; Vitamin AB2D3K; Acrylic Fibre; Sodium Nitrite; Cold Rolled Flat Products Stainless Steel; Flexible Slabstock Polyol; High Styrene Rubber; Vitamin AD3; Acrylic Fibre below 1.5 denier; Purified Terephtalic Acid; Sodium Cyanide; Seamless Tubes; OXO Alcohols; Hydroxyl Amine Sulphate; Sodium Ferrocyanide; Caustic Soda; Aniline; Theophiline and Caffeine; Chlorine Cloride; Vitamin C; Black and White Photographic Paper; Thermal Sensitive Paper; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber; Acrylic Fibres. The EC considers that the Indian antidumping investigations and measures on these products are inconsistent with the obligations set forth in Article VI:1 of GATT 1994 and Articles 1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.5, 6.6, 6.8 (including Annex II), 6.9 and 12.2 of the Anti-Dumping Agreement in particular because the determination of the effect of the dumped imports on prices does not seem to be based on positive evidence and on an objective examination; there is no demonstration that dumped imports caused the alleged injury and that injury caused by other factors was not attributed to dumping; interested parties were not properly informed of the relevant essential facts which formed the basis for the decision to apply the anti-dumping measures and did not have sufficient time to defend their interests; interested parties were not properly informed of the reasons why evidence or information they had submitted within the investigation procedure were not accepted; the public notice of information concluding the investigation did not contain all relevant information on the matters of fact and law and reasons which led to the imposition of the anti-dumping

measures. India accepted the EC request for consultations on 12 December 2003. Consultations are still ongoing.

DEFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 246 - GSP regime (procedural stage: implementation)

On 5 March 2002, India requested consultations against certain aspects of the EC GSP regime, which it considers in violation of Article I of the GATT and paragraphs 2(a), 3(a) and 3(c) of the Enabling Clause. Consultations took place on 25 March 2002. At the DSB meeting of 19 December 2002 India requested for the first time the establishment of a panel. The panel was established at the DSB meeting of 27 January 2003. Through a letter dated 3 March 2003, India announced its decision to limit its complaint to the GSP "drugs" regime. The panel was composed by the D-G of the WTO on 6 March 2003. The panel meetings were held at 14-16 May and 8)9 June 2003. The final report was sent to the disputing parties end of October 2003. The report was circulated to the entire WTO Membership 1 December 2003. By a notification dated 8 January 2004 the EC notified its decision to appeal certain issues of the Panel Report. The AB hearing was held on 19 February 2004. The AB report was issued on 7 April 2004 and adopted on 20 April 2004. The report, while maintaining that the EC Drugs Regime is inconsistent with Article I of the GATT, reversed the panel rigid interpretation of the “Enabling Clause” and it asserted that developed countries may differentiate under certain conditions among GSP beneficiaries with the objective of responding positively to special needs of developing countries. The EC and India have entered into discussions to agree on a reasonable period of time (RPT) to implement the relevant DSB rulings and recommendations.

VI – KOREA

OFFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 273 – Shipbuilding subsidies (procedural stage: panel)
On 21 October the EC requested consultations against certain subsidies granted by Korea to its shipbuilding industry, which it considers in violation of Articles 3 and 5 of the WTO Subsidies Agreement. Three rounds of consultations took place in November, December and May 2003 which failed to resolve the issue. As a result, at the DSB meeting of 21 July a Panel was established. At the same meeting the special fact finding Annex V procedure requested by the EC was also launched; the Annex V procedure was concluded on 10 November. The Panel report (originally expected in August 2004) will be delayed until November due to the unfortunate event of the death of Mr El-Naggar (the distinguished chairman of the Panel); Mr Lacarte-Muro (ex-member of the Appellate Body) has in the meantime been selected as the new member and chairman of the Panel. The first oral hearing chaired by Mr El-Naggar took place on 9-10 March. The second oral hearing chaired by Mr Lacarte-Muro took place on 17-18 June.

DEFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 299 – CVD measures on DRAMs (procedural stage: panel) On 25 August, Korea requested consultations against EC’s definitive countervailing measures on DRAMs (semiconductors) made by Hynix in Korea, which it considers in violation of the WTO Subsidies Agreement. In July, Korea had already requested consultations against EC’s provisional CVD measures; these took place on 19 August. This second round of consultations took place on 8 October 2003 in Geneva. On 19 November Korea requested (for the first time) the establishment of a Panel. Following Korea’s second request the Panel was established at the DSB meeting of 23 January. The Panel was constituted on 24 March 2004. Under the Panel’s timetable the report is expected in January 2005.

(2) DS 301 – Shipbuilding subsidies (procedural stage: panel)
On 3 September, Korea requested consultations against certain alleged subsidies granted by the EC to its shipbuilding industry, which it considers in violation of Articles 3 and 5 of the WTO Subsidies Agreement. A first round of consultations took place on 9 October 2003 in Geneva. A second round of consultations took place on 14 November 2003 in Geneva. Korea had at the time suggested that a third round of consultations might be necessary in the future. However, Korea decided to split its claims and at the DSB meeting of 17 February 2004 has proceeded with the first request for a panel against the Temporary Defence Mechanism (TDM) for shipbuilding. At the same time Korea requested new consultations on the other EU State aid measures (see case DS 307 below).The Panel was established at the DSB meeting of 19 March and composed on 13 May 2004.

(3) DS 307 – Shipbuilding subsidies (procedural stage: consultations)
This is the continuation of the remainder of case DS301 (see above). Due to the fact that Korea changed the scope of its consultations request in comparison to DS 301, these are considered as new consultations. Consultations will take place on 23 July.

VII– THAILAND

DEFENSIVE CASES

(1) DS 283 – EC export subsidies on sugar (procedural stage: Panel)
On 14 March 2003, Thailand requested WTO consultations on Council Regulation (EC) No. 1260/2001 on the common organisation of the markets in the sugar sector and other related EC legislation, regulations, administrative policies and other instruments applicable to sugar and sugar-containing products. Thailand considers that the EC sugar regime is inconsistent with Article III:4 of the GATT 1994, Articles 3.1(a), 3.1(b) and 3.2 of the SCM Agreement and Articles 3.3, 8, 9:1 and 10.1 of the Agreement on Agriculture. Consultations were held on 8 April 2003. Thailand requested the establishment of a Panel on 9 July 2003. This request was first considered at the DSB meeting of 21 July 2003. The panel was established when the request was tabled, for the second time, in the DSB meeting of 29 August 2003. Upon request from Australia, Brazil and Thailand, a single panel was established for the three disputes DS265, DS265, DS283. After several rounds of unsuccessful attempts by the parties to agree on the selection of the panellists, the Director-General of the WTO composed the panel on 23 December 2003, upon request from the complainants. The panel proceedings have started thereafter. The issuance of the panel’s final report to the parties is currently expected for early September 2004.

(2) DS 286 - Frozen Chicken Cuts (procedural stage: panel)
On 25 March 2003, Thailand requested WTO consultations on the recent EC Commission Regulation No. 1223/2002 of 8 July 2002 concerning the customs classification of certain goods (frozen boneless chicken cuts). Thailand claims that through this Regulation, its commerce has been afforded treatment less favourable than that provided in the EC Schedule in contravention of the EC obligations under Article II of the GATT 1994. The consultations were held in Geneva on 21 May 2003. On 27 October 2003, Thailand requested the establishment of a panel. The DSB meting at its meeting of 21 November 2003 decided to establish a single panel to hear both claims (identical) brought by Thailand and Brazil on this matter (see above DS 269). As indicated above under DS 269, Director General of the WTO proceeded to compose the Panel following the relevant request, on 28 June 2004.

VIII - USA

OFFENSIVE CASES

1 .1. Cases on Trade Defence Instruments and Subsidies

(1) DS 136 - 1916 Anti-Dumping Act (procedural stage: implementation)
On 26 September 2000, the DSB adopted the panel and Appellate Body reports that found the US antidumping legislation of 1916 incompatible with the WTO Agreements as it provides remedies to dumping, like the imposition of triple damages, fines, and imprisonment, none of which are permitted by the WTO Agreement on Anti-Dumping. The US had originally been granted by the DSB until 26 July 2001 to comply with the WTO ruling, but on 24 July 2001 the United States asked the DSB for authorisation to extend the deadline. In order to facilitate US compliance with DSB ruling and in light of the US commitments to terminate pending cases, the EC agreed to extend the implementation period, which expired on 20 December 2001. The US Administration sent a bill repealing the 1916 Act and terminating cases pending before US courts to Congress prior to the summer recess. However, it is only on the last day of the implementation period that that bill was formally introduced in the House of Representatives by M. Thomas, chairman of the Ways and Means committee. Therefore, to safeguard its rights the EC requested on 7 January 2002 the DSB’s authorisation to suspend the application of the obligations under GATT 1994 and the Anti-Dumping Agreement, more precisely to allow the EC to adopt an equivalent regulation to the 1916 Act against imports from the United States.

This "mirror" regulation would allow the EC to impose on US companies found to dump their products in Europe additional duties corresponding, over the five year projected life of the measures, to three times the amount of the damage suffered by companies in the EC. The investigation would be conducted by the EC as part of the anti-dumping investigation and the additional duties would be paid to the EC budget (and not to the complainants). Japan, which is co-complainant in this case, has submitted a request for suspension of obligations similar to the EC one. The US requested an arbitration under Article 22.6 DSU against these requests at the special DSB meeting on 18 January 2002. The two parties agreed that arbitration would be suspended until 30 June 2002 so as to facilitate adoption of the necessary legislation by Congress. On 19 September 2003, the EC asked for re-activation of the arbitration in light of the persisting inaction of the US.

On 24 February 2004, the arbitrators accepted that the EC had the right to suspend its obligations under the GATT 1994 and the AD Agreement so as to adopt specific antidumping rules for products originating in the US. The application of the specific legislation must remain within the limit of a ceiling corresponding to the amounts payable by EC companies pursuant to final judgements or out-of-court settlements. Two other repealing bills were introduced, but none were adopted or even discussed and all became void following the adjournment of the Congress in November 2002. Since the start of the new Congress in January 2003, three repealing bills have been introduced in the House of Representatives (one bill in March) and in the Senate (two bills in May). The House bill was voted out of the Committee for consideration by the whole House in February 2004, but there has not been any progress since then and there is no indication when the debate and the vote will take place in the House. In the Senate, there was not any progress. As currently drafted, one of these bills only would terminate the pending court cases. Three cases brought on the basis of the 1916 Act against EC companies have caused substantial litigation costs. The Council adopted on 15 December 2003 a "blocking" regulation. This regulation (1) prohibits the recognition and enforcement in the EC of decisions based on the 1916 AD Act (2) entitles EC companies to counter-sue the US plaintiff to recover damages and expenses caused by the application of 1916 AD Act.

(2) DS 217 – “Byrd amendment" (procedural stage: implementation)
The “Byrd amendment” signed into law in October 2000 provides that the proceeds from anti-dumping and countervailing duty cases shall be paid to the US companies responsible for bringing the cases. On 22 December 2000, the EC, together with eight other WTO partners (Australia, Brazil, Chile, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Thailand), requested formal WTO consultations with the US. This joint action is a clear indication of the important systemic concerns that the legislation raises among WTO members. Consultations with the US were held on 6 February 2001 but did not lead to any result since the US representative indicated that the Administration (despite the opposition of the previous Administration to the amendment, as expressed during the legislative discussions) will take no steps to convince the Congress to revoke the law. On the contrary, the granting of the subsidies will start as from the new fiscal year.

On 26 June 2001, the US published in the Federal Register the “proposed rules” for implementing the Byrd amendment. Upon joint request from the nine co-complainants, a single panel was established by the DSB on 23 August 2001. On 21 May 2001, Canada and Mexico requested formal WTO consultations with the US on the Byrd amendment. They joined the panel proceeding initiated by the other nine cocomplainants at a special meeting of the DSB on 10 September 2001. The panel report has confirmed that the Byrd amendment was an impermissible response to dumping and subsidy and rendered meaningless the WTO provisions requiring Members to test the domestic industry's support for application before initiating an investigation by making such support a condition to get access to funds. The US appealed the panel report on 18 October 2002. The Appellate Body released its report on 16 January 2003 and confirmed the Panel's central finding that the Byrd amendment is an impermissible response to dumping and subsidy. The DSB adopted the Panel and the Appellate Body reports in its meeting of 27 January 2003. On 26 February 2003, the US informed the DSB that it was willing to implement but needed a reasonable period of time to do so. In the absence of greement between the US and the complainants on the implementation deadline, an arbitrator was appointed on 2 April 2003 to determine the reasonable period of time to comply with the DSB recommendations and rulings. On 13 June 2003, the arbitrator granted to the US until 27 December 2003 to comply with the WTO ruling and recommendation. On 13 June 2003, the arbitrator granted to the US until 27 December 2003 to comply with the WTO ruling and recommendation. The US has failed to meet that deadline and to date there has not been any signs that the US was working on implementation. On 15 January 2004, to preserve its rights, the EC sent a request to the WTO seeking the authorisation to apply on US products an additional import duty. The level of the sanctions will be determined by the amount of payments made in the latest annual distribution.

To the amount of payments attributed to duties collected on EC products will be added a portion of payments attributed to duties collected on countries which are not authorised to retaliate against the US. The level of the duty will vary every year to adapt to the variations in the Byrd payments but the products subject to the additional duty (to be defined at a later stage) will remain the same. Brazil, Canada, Chile, India, Japan, Korea and Mexico have also requested the authorisation to apply sanctions against the US. The US objected to the requests and the matter has now been referred to arbitration. The issuance of the award initially announced on 2 June 2004 has been postponed. No new date has been determined yet. In the meantime, the US authorities have distributed to domestic petitioners more than US $ 231 million in January 2002 and US $ 330 million in January 2003. The third distribution on which details are not yet fully available would amount to about US $ 242 million. On 2 June 2004, the US administration published a notice setting forth the companies that are potentially eligible for the distribution of the duties collected during the present fiscal year (1 October 2003 – 30 September 2004). This notice is the first step for a fourth distribution that, absent implementation by the US, will start on 1 October 2004.

(3) DS 212 - US countervailing measures on privatised EU firms/follow-up to the British Steel case (procedural stage: implementation)
This case is the follow-up of a previous WTO case “Lead Bar from UK” also known as “British Steel” (DS 138). In the British steel case, the AB found, in May 2000, that the US change in ownership methodology was WTO inconsistent because the investigating authority did not evaluate the nature of the privatization. The AB also found that a privatization at arm’s length and for fair market value eliminates the benefit to the privatized firm of all the subsidies previously bestowed. The US, instead of implementing the WTO ruling, refused to revise the previous cases where the change in ownership methodology was used and, in January 2001, developed a new methodology, the so-called “same person” approach, to be applied to all the new investigations (or reviews). This new methodology was also clearly WTO-inconsistent, and after a long series of discussions with the US, the Community was forced to request a new Panel.

The complaint brought by the Community in this case concerned the two methodologies, the US law governing changes in ownership (Section 1677(5)(F)) and the decision of the US authorities to impose or maintain countervailing duties in 12 cases involving the following firms: Usinor and GTS (France), Dillinger (Germany), Corus (United Kingdom), AST, Ilva and Cogne Acciai Speciali (Italy), SSAB (Sweden) and Aceralia (Spain) Therefore no alternative was left but to pursue the matter before the WTO. The request for the establishment of these panels was presented for the first time at a special DSB meeting held on 23 August 2001. Despite a commitment not to do so, the US opposed the establishment of the panels. The panel was established at a special DSB meeting on 10 September 2001. The final report was circulated on 31 July 2002. The panel has found that the US measures are inconsistent with WTO rules. The US has appealed the panel's report. On 9 December 2002, the Appellate Body upheld the incompatibility of the US measures and practice, while "saving" its legislation. The Appellate Body report was adopted on 8 January 2003. The reasonable period of time for implementation expired on 8 November 2003. The US informed the DSB of the measures they have taken to comply on 7 November 2003.

The US has been obliged to replace the unacceptable “same person” methodology with a new methodology, which, although not completely satisfactory, is an important evolution of the US position. Furthermore, the application of the new methodology led to the termination of four CVD cases and positively impacted on other four (duty rates reduced). Notwithstanding this result, there are certain aspects of the US privatization approach which fall short of compliance with the DSB rulings in this case. In particular, the US decision to maintain CVD measures in the four “sunset reviews” needs to be changed, and the benchmark for the calculation of subsidy benefits, including those from the sale of employees’ shares, is clearly inflated. The EC has therefore requested consultations with the US under Article 21.5 in order to ascertain whether a mutually acceptable solution can be reached on these issues. A first round of consultations took place on 24 May 2004. (4) DS 213 - US application of de minimis rules in AD/CVD sunset reviews (procedural stage: implementation) In this case, DOC has recommended continuation of AD/CVD measures, in spite of the amounts of dumping and subsidy being below the current de minimis level. On 8 December 2000, the Commission held WTO consultations with the US on the case of corrosion resistant steel from Germany without achieving any progress.

Last attempt was made with the new US Administration in order to find an acceptable solution without having to resort to WTO panels, with no avail. Therefore no alternative was left but to pursue the matter before the WTO. The request for the establishment of these panels was presented for the first time at a special DSB meeting held on 23 August 2001. Despite a commitment not to do so, the US opposed the establishment of the panels. The panel was established at a special DSB meeting on 10 September 2001. The final report was circulated on 3 July 2002. The panel has found that the US measures are inconsistent with the WTO SCM Agreement. The US appealed the panel's report. On 28 November, the Appellate Body reversed the panel report and held the US law on de minimis consistent with its WTO obligations. The Appellate Body report was adopted on 19 December 2002. On 1 April 2004, the US repealed the measures at issue.

(5) DS 108 - Foreign Sales Corporation ("FSC") (procedural stage: implementation) The history of this case goes back to 1971 to the Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC) scheme, which was declared an illegal export subsidy by a GATT panel in 1976 (the panel ruling was adopted in 1981). The US replaced the DISC scheme with the FSC scheme in 1984. At the time the EU contested the legality of the FSC but did not pursue it due to the opening of the Uruguay Round trade negotiations. Following further complaints by EU companies, and in view of the increasing amount of FSC subsidies being granted by the US, the EU resumed bilateral contacts with the US in 1997. Since no progress was made, the EU requested a WTO panel to pronounce itself on the dispute. The Panel in its report of October 1999 found the FSC to constitute an illegal export subsidy under both the Subsidies Agreement and (in relation to agricultural products) the Agriculture Agreement. The US appealed against the Panel Ruling but the Appellate Body confirmed the panel findings on the illegality of the FSC scheme. The US was then given until 1 October 2000 (extended to 1 November 2000) to withdraw the FSC scheme. In an effort to comply with the WTO ruling, on 15 November 2000, President Clinton signed the FSC Replacement Act (ETI Act) into law. The ETI Act, however, did not modify the substance of the export subsidy scheme and as a result on 17 November 2000, the EU launched a further Panel on compliance and at the same time presented a request for countermeasures for an amount of US $ 4,043 million.

On 20 August 2001, the WTO compliance panel examining the ETI Act issued its report in full support of the EU. In particular, the panel found that the ETI Act also constituted a prohibited export subsidy under WTO rules. The US appealed but in January 2002 the WTO Appellate Body once more confirmed the panel findings. As a result, on 30 August 2002 the WTO arbitrators authorised the EU to impose countermeasures at the level of US $ 4,043 million by increasing the customs duties on certain selected products up to 100%. The selection of the products destined for countermeasures, was made following consultation with EU economic operators (through a publication on 13 September of a Notice in the OJ) and Member States. The aim of the consultation was to minimise the negative consequences that any eventual countermeasures could create to EU industry; in that respect, the Commission included in the list products on which the US import share was low. On 28 March Member States gave their agreement to the definitive list, which was adopted by the Commission on 23 April 2003. Subsequently the EC notified the list to the WTO and on 7 May 2003, the DSB gave its authorisation for the imposition of countermeasures. The EC stated it would evaluate US progress on implementation in autumn 2003 and decide on countermeasures accordingly. The Council Regulation 2193/03 was adopted on 8 December and published in OJ L 328 of 17 December 2003. On the basis of the Regulation, countermeasures started being gradually applied as from 1 March; they will remain in force until the US comes into compliance (i.e., WTO compatible law signed by the President). In this connection, the EC is monitoring closely progress in Congress on the adoption of an FSC repeal bill. Bills to repeal FSC have been passed by both the Senate and the House of Representatives in May and June respectively. The two bills need to be reconciled following the so-called “conference” procedure which is expected to be initiated in July.

(6) DS 262 - US sunset reviews on certain steel products (procedural stage: consultations)
On 8 December 2000, the US decided to maintain for a further five years the anti-dumping and countervailing duties imposed in August 1993 on cut-to-length steel plate from Germany and corrosion-resistant steel from France and Germany. The US legislation on sunset reviews as well as the results of these specific sunset reviews appear to be inconsistent with several provisions of the WTO agreements. The main issues are the treatment on non-cooperation of the exporters, the definition of the de minimis dumping margin, the standards for assessing cumulatively the imports in the injury analysis and the treatment of negligible import volumes in sunset reviews. On 25 July 2002, the EC requested consultations with the US under Articles 17 of the antidumping agreement, 30 of the subsidy agreement, 4 of the DSU and XXII:1 of the GATT 1994. Consultations were held on 12 September 2002. (Japan whose exports of corrosionresistan steel are also subject to an anti-dumping duty imposed in 1993 and maintained inthe same sunset review initiated dispute settlement on the US decision in January 2002.

The panel's report on Japan's claims was circulated in August 2003 and favoured a strictly literal interpretation of the AD Agreement that conflicts with Japan and EC approach to sunset reviews. Japan appealed certain issues of law. The AB report upheld the US decision to maintain the AD duty on Japanese products, but reversed the Panel on a number of systemic issues. Even if sunset reviews remain subject to lower standards than original investigations (for e.g. no de minimis thresholds, right to initiate without prima facie evidence), the AB accepted that the continuation of the duty was the exception, recalled the obligation to conduct a full investigation and to define basic concepts such as dumping in a consistent way. The Panel and Appellate Body reports were adopted on 9 January 2004).

(7) DS 294 – Zeroing methodologies in the establishment of dumping margins (procedural stage: Panel)
In original investigations, the US Department of Commerce ('DOC') calculates the dumping margin using the methodology condemned in the Bed linen case. This methodology consists in disregarding negative dumping margins established for certain models of the product concerned (put at zero) when calculating the overall margin for the product. Although this dispute was concerned with the EU practice, it unambiguously condemned the “zeroing” methodology as such when used in well-defined circumstances. The US refuses to abandon its methodology, arguing that the Bed-Linen decisions have effect inter-partes only. In reviews, DOC systematically uses a calculation methodology, which also includes"zeroing" in circumstances not foreseen by the WTO AD Agreement. WTO consultations were requested on 12 June 2003 on the law, the implementing regulation, the DOC methodologies and 21 specific cases (new investigations and annual reviews of the duty or administrative reviews). An additional request for consultation was made on 8 September 2003 on 10 additional new investigations. In most cases, without “zeroing”, the dumping margin would have been de minimis or even negative and, therefore, no anti-dumping duty would have been imposed or collected. Two rounds of consultations were held in 2003. A first request for the establishment of a Panel was put forward in the DSB meeting of 17February 2004. The Panel was established at the DSB meeting of 19 March 2004. Composition of the Panel is on-going.


1. 2. Cases on Intellectual Property Rights
(8) DS 160 - Section 110(5) of the US Copyright Act (“Homestyle exemption”)(procedural stage: implementation)

On 27 July 2000, the DSB adopted the Panel report that found Section 110(5)(B) of the US Copyright Act to be incompatible with the TRIPs Agreement, in connection with the Bern Convention on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, as it provides an exceedingly broad derogation from the exclusive right of authors to authorise the public communication of their works. The US had originally been granted until 27 July 2001 to comply with the WTO rulings. On 24 July 2001 the DSB approved an extension of the reasonable period of time given to comply with the recommendations and rulings of the DSB until 31 December 2001, or the date on which the current session of the US Congress adjourns, whichever is earlier. The EC did not object to such an extension on the basis of the following premises: - The US would negotiate a solution for the benefit of the EU right holders affected by the operation of Section 110(5) US Copyright Act. - An arbitration procedure under Article 25 of the DSU would determine the economic losses due to the WTO-incompatible Section 110(5)(B) of the US Copyright Act. The arbitrators rendered their award on 12 October 2001 and determined that the level of nullification or impairment was equal to € 1.219.900 per year. The award was circulated on 9 November 2001. Talks with the US continued after the arbitration procedure, and the parties eventually found common ground regarding a possible future mutually acceptable arrangement. The US was to provide financial assistance to EU performing societies with a view to developing activities for the promotion of authors’ rights, pending compliance with the DSB recommendations and rulings. The understanding covered a 3-year period ending on 21 December 2004. The EC’s right to suspend concessions or other obligations has been safeguarded by means of a request under Article 22.2 DSU made on 7 January 2002. The requested suspension of TRIPs obligations consists in the levying of a special fee to US right holders that apply for action by the EU customs authorities to block pirated copyright goods. There is an ongoing arbitration procedure on the EC’s request, which is currently suspended in order to facilitate the implementation of a mutually acceptable arrangement. In July 2002, the US Congress passed the Trade Promotion Authority Act, which included a provision setting up a fund for the payment of settlements of WTO disputes. The Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act, approved in April 2003, foresaw an appropriation to make a payment in connection with the Section 110(5) dispute. In the light of this legislative development, the US and the EC notified to the WTO a mutually satisfactory temporary arrangement on 23 June. In September 2003, the US made the agreed payment. For the time being there are no legislative initiatives to bring the Copyright Act into compliance with the TRIPs agreement.

(9) DS 176 - Section 211 of the US Omnibus Appropriations Act ("Havana Club") (procedural stage: implementation)
Section 211 U.S. Omnibus Appropriations Act was adopted by the U.S. Congress in October 1998. It is designed to diminish the rights of owners of U.S. trademarks and trade-names which previously belonged to a Cuban national or company which was expropriated in the course of the Cuban revolution. On 26 September 2000 a WTO panel has been established to rule on the compatibility of Section 211 with the obligations of the US under the TRIPs Agreement. The panel has circulated its report to the WTO Members on 6 August 2001. The EC lodged an appeal against the panel report on 4 October 2001. The Appellate Body issued its report on 2 January 2002. It substantially reversed the reasoning of the panel. It indeed ruled that trade names are protected by the TRIPs agreement, and found Section 211 in violation of both the national treatment and the MFN obligations of the TRIPs Agreement. It however reversed the finding of the panel on Article 42 TRIPs and maintained the finding of the panel that the TRIPs does not govern the issue of the determination of ownership of IP rights. The report of the Appellate Body has been adopted at the regular DSB meeting on 1 February 2002. The US and the EC reached an agreement on the reasonable period of time for the US to implement the DSB ruling and the US officially acknowledged that compliance ‘call for legislative action by US Congress’. The reasonable implementation period due to expire on 31 December 2002 was extended until 31 December 2004.

(10) DS 186 - Section 337 of the 1930 Tariff Act on Copyrights (procedural stage : consultations)
Section 337 of the U.S. Tariff Act declares the importation into the U.S. of articles infringing U.S. intellectual property rights illegal. It authorises the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) to investigate allegations of such practices and, if a violation is found, to exclude the articles from entry into the U.S. The procedures and remedies under Section 337 of the US Tariff Act are substantially different from the internal procedures in the case of domestic goods which allegedly infringe US intellectual property rights: notably, the means of defence under the Section 337 procedure are limited. These differences appear to breach the National Treatment clauses of the GATT and the TRIPs agreements, among other provisions. In 1989, a GATT panel already condemned Section 337, which was subsequently amended. However, the amendments were only partial and clearly insufficient. WTO consultations took place on 28 February 2000, with no positive outcome. Since then, the ITC has started new investigations against a number of European and Canadian companies. The Commission is concerned by these developments and it regularly raises the “Section 337” issue in its bilateral contacts with the US Administration. The Commission does not discard possible further action at the WTO level.

1. 3. Cases dealing with US unilateralism

(11) DS 200 - Carousel (procedural stage: consultations)
WTO consultations have been held in Geneva on 5 July 2000. The 133 Committee has decided in July 2000 that the EC would immediately request the establishment of a panel against the US legislation as soon as sanctions are rotated. Despite strong rumours that rotation could have taken place by 14 November or 18 November 2000, i.e. within 180 days or 6 months after the entry into force of the law, this did not happen. The political agreement reached on 10 April 2001 in the Bananas dispute should reduce the US domestic pressure to apply the carousel. The US 100% duties introduced in the context of this dispute have been terminated as of 1 July 2001. The two situations where the USTR is not obliged by law to rotate the carousel are (1) when there is a determination of imminent compliance, or (2) when the affected industry agrees not to rotate the sanctions.

DEFENSIVE CASES

(12) DS 48 + DS 26 - Hormones (procedural stage: implementation) On the basis of the studies reviewed by the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Matters relating to Public Health ("SCVPH"), on 5 May 2000 the Commission adopted a proposal to amend the “hormones directive.” This proposal provides for a permanent ban of 17ß oestradiol, which carcinogenic and genotoxic effects have been clearly demonstrated, and a provisional ban for the other 5 hormones. The new directive entered into force on 14 October 2003. The adoption of new rules based on a revised risk assessment brings the EU into conformity with its WTO obligations. At the Dispute Settlement Body meeting of 7 November 2003 the EC notified the new Directive as compliance in this case. Both Canada and the US disagreed and stated that they will keep their sanctions. At the DSB on 1 December 2003, the EC noted that this disagreement on compliance should be solved through multilateral DSB procedures. In this regard, the EC has informed Canada and the US its readiness to discuss procedural matters further with a view to agree on appropriate action.

(13) DS 174 – Trademarks & geographical indications (procedural stage: Panel)
On 7 June 1999, the US requested WTO consultations regarding Regulation No 2081/92 on geographical indications. Those consultations took place on 9 July 1999. At that point in time, the US argued that the Regulation was contrary to Articles 3, 16, 24, 63 and 65 of the TRIPs agreement. The US, although considering that the consultations had not allowed solving the dispute, did not request the establishment of the Panel. On 4 April 2003, the US requested additional WTO consultations on the same matter. The new consultation request argues that Regulation No 2081/92 on geographical indications is contrary to the TRIPs agreement (now including Articles 4 and 22), and also Articles I and III:4 of the GATT. Consultations took place on 27 May 2003. The US requested the establishment of a panel on for the first time on 29 August 2003. The panel was established at the DSB meeting on 2 October 2003. The panel request argues that Regulation No 2081/92 is contrary to the TRIPs agreement (Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 16, 20, 22, 24, 41, 42, 63), Articles I and III:4 of the GATT. The Director-General of the WTO composed the panel on 13 February 2004. The EC filed its first written submission on 25 May 2004. The Panel is expected to issue its final report to the parties on 30 November 2004.

(14) DS 291 – EC – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of certain biotech products (GMOs) (procedural stage: panel)
On 13 May 2003, the US requested consultations on certain measures concerning GMOs. The US argues that there is a suspension of approvals in the approval of GMOs and GM food in the EU, which is contrary to several WTO agreements (GATT, SPS, TBT, and AoA). In this connection, the US also complains about the failure to consider for approval a number of specific products listed in the consultations request. Furthermore, the US considers that the restrictions imposed by several Member States on the sale or use of approved GMOs and GM food are inconsistent with WTO rules. Consultations were held on 19 June 2003. A panel was established on 29 August 2003. Consultations were held on 19 June 2003. A panel was established on 29 August 2003. After some discussions on panel composition, the complainants suddenly decided to request the WTO Director General to appoint the panellists, which he did on 4 March 2004. The panellists are: Christian Haberli (Switzerland - Chairman), Mohan Kumar (India) and Akio Shimizu (Japan). The panel procedure is ongoing.

Trade/D/3 - Last update on 2 July 2004
18
LIST OF ACTIVE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT CASES
I – Argentina
1. Offensive cases
1) Hides and skins
2. Defensive cases
1) EC – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products
(GMOs)
II - Australia
1. Offensive cases
1) Quarantine measures for imports (SPS)
2. Defensive cases
1) EC Sugar regime
2) Geographical indications
III – Brazil
1. Defensive cases
1) EC anti-dumping duties in imports of malleable fittings from Brazil
2) EC Sugar regime
3) EC - Customs classification of frozen boneless chicken cuts
IV - Canada
1. Defensive cases
1) EC – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech
products (GMOs)
2) Hormones
V – India
1. Offensive cases
1) Import Restrictions maintained under India's EXIM policy 2002-2007
2) AD measures on imports of certain products from the EC and/or MS.
2. Defensive cases
1) EC General System of Preferences
19
VI –Korea
1. Offensive cases
1) Shipbuilding subsidies (DS273)
2. Defensive Cases
1) Shipbuilding subsidies (DS 307)
2) CVD measures on DRAM
3) Shipbuilding - TDM (DS301)
VII – Thailand
1. Defensive cases
1) EC Sugar regime
2) Customs classification of frozen boneless chicken cuts
VIII – USA
1. Offensive cases
1) 1916 Anti-dumping Act
2) "Byrd amendment"
3) US countervailing measures on privatised EU firms
4) Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)
5) US sunset reviews on certain steel products
6) Zeroing methodologies in the establishment of dumping
7) Homestyle exemptions in Section 110 of the US Copyright Act
8) Section 211 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act (Havana Club)
9) Section 337 of the 1930 Tariff Act on Copyrights
10) Carousel
2. Defensive cases
1) Hormones
2) Trademarks and Geographical Indications
3) EC – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products
(GMOs)
____________


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 flecheCultural statistics - 2007 Edition
 flecheEU steps up the fight against undeclared work
 flecheCultural statistics : The cultural economy and cultural activities in the EU27
 fleche"Gender equality in cohesion policy 2007 – 2013: a critical element for success!" – Discourse by Danuta Hübner
 fleche"The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): a new instrument for cooperation in the European Union" - speech by Carlos Fernández de Casadevante at the "Crossing borders: Networking and best practice supporting growth and jobs" seminar of the 2007 Open Days
 fleche"La plateforme pour les Partenariats Innovants du PNUD - pour une approche territoriale du développement" - Communication de Christophe NUTALL au séminaire "Regional Policy in a global perspective" des Open Days 2007
 flecheQuestions and Answers on an integrated maritime policy for the European Union
 flecheENPI Regional Strategy Paper 2007-2013 and Regional Indicative Progamme 2007-2010 for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
 flecheWorldwide corporate investment in R&D grew by 10% last year, according to a new European Commission study
 flecheMaking it happen: launch of 2007 OPEN DAYS European Week of Regions and Cities
 flecheCommunication from the Commission - "The European Interest: Succeeding in the age of globalisation"
 flecheEU Job Days bring together jobseekers and employers (24-29 september 2007)
 flecheFinal Report : High Level Group on Multilingualism
 fleche"Enhancing motivation for language learning" - the recommendations of the High Level Group on Multilingualism
 flecheCommissioner Orban: "More young Europeans learn foreign languages and much earlier than their parents"
 flecheThe drive for eCall accelerates: the Czech Republic, Portugal and Spain come on board
 flecheEnergising Europe: A real market with secure supply
 flecheLanguages open doors: Celebrating the European Day of Languages
 fleche"Global English is not enough for global business": A Conference in Brussels on linguistic skills and competitiveness
 flecheEuropean Commission is world's largest public investor in nanotechnology
 flecheCommission proposes a global alliance to help developing countries most affected by climate change
 flecheMontreal Protocol: one of the most successful environmental agreements celebrates its 20th anniversary
 flecheStrengthening and monitoring measures for integration policies in the EU: the Commission adopts the Third Annual Report on Migration and Integration
 flecheCommission wants to involve young people better in society
 flecheRegional policy Commissioner Danuta Hübner today spoke to the 2nd Annual Conference of NEEBOR (Network of Eastern External Border Regions), held in Olsztyn, Poland
 flecheCommission proposes actions to foster 21st Century e-Skills
 fleche"Splendeurs du patrimoine linguistique": discours de Leonard Orban, Commissaire européen chargé du Multilinguisme
 flecheThe European Migration Network: Providing up-to-date information and data on migratory developments
 flecheTeachers need good education too! The Commission proposes to improve the quality of teacher education in the European Union
 flecheErasmus Mundus II — the reference for international cooperation in higher education
 flecheMigration Management - Solidarity in Action: new EU financial support to be made available in 2007
 fleche"The future development of EU migration policy"
 flecheFirst two applications for The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) money approved by Commission
 fleche"UE–Chine-Afrique: d'une relation de concurrence à un partenariat triangulaire pour le développement de l'Afrique"
 flecheA single database for all EU-related terminology (InterActiveTerminology for Europe) in 23 languages opens to the public
 flecheEurobarometer qualitative study on the Europeans, culture and cultural values
 flecheCommission assesses impact of funding for regions, launches debate on next round of cohesion policy
 flecheCommunication from the Commission on a European agenda for culture in a globalizing world
 flecheFirst-ever European strategy for culture: contributing to economic growth and intercultural understanding
 flecheErasmus celebrates 20 years breaking records of participation
 flecheEuropean Commission welcomes adoption of negotiating mandates for new Free Trade Agreements with India, Korea and ASEAN
 flecheMandelson warns lack of trust could threaten EU-Russia relationship
 flecheCommission proposes stronger partnership to improve access to foreign markets for EU business
 flecheLa Commission européenne, la BEI et 6 Etats membres lancent le Fonds Fiduciaire pour les infrastructures en Afrique
 flecheEuropean partners join lively debate on flexicurity
 flecheCommission calls for more predictable and more effective development aid
 flecheThis is the Europe we want!
 flecheA vision for the single market of the 21st century
 flecheCommission welcomes international agreement to boost trade in new pharmaceuticals
 flecheMEDIA 2007: €755 million boost for Europe's film industry
 flecheClimate change and the EU’s response
 flecheMedia pluralism in the Member States of the European Union
 flecheMedia pluralism: Commission stresses need for transparency, freedom and diversity in Europe's media landscape
 flecheComment le marché unique est-il perçu?
 flecheNew EU energy plan - more security, less pollution
 flecheSlovenia ready to adopt the euro
 flecheBulgaria and Romania latest to join the EU
 fleche"Knowledge of territorial trends and structures are crucial for strategic programming", Danuta Hübner tells Brussels conference
 flecheEU welcomes signing of new Central European Free Trade Agreement
 fleche„Europe – succeeding together“ : Presidency Programme 1 January to 30 June 2007
 fleche8th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs - “Tampere conclusions”
 flecheFAQ: UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity – a new instrument of international governance
 flecheConclusions of Euro-Mediterranean Ministerial Conference on Strengthening the Role of Women in Society
 flecheThe Commission launches new scholarship scheme outside the EU
 flecheErasmus turns 20
 flecheEurope sees progress on Corporate Social Responsibility
 fleche29 ways to promote inter-cultural understanding: examples of best practice from around Europe
 flecheEuropean Commission publishes the study on the Economy of Culture in Europe
 flecheThe economy of culture in Europe
 flechePresentation of the European Commission's 2007 Work Programme
 flecheLa proposition de décision du Parlement européen et du Conseil visant à déclarer 2008 " Année européenne du dialogue interculturel "
 flecheBrazil and the global economy
 flecheGlobalisation : trends, issues and macro implications for the EU
 flecheTowards an EU Strategy on the Rights of the Child
 fleche"There is no more time left": Peter Mandelson statement to the press following suspension of WTO Doha negotiations
 fleche"Key role for border regions in the EU jobs and growth strategy", Danuta Hübner tells Saarbrücken conference
 flecheAn arrangement which infringes national competition law may infringe Community law at the same time
 flecheCommission provides €20 million food aid to the Palestinians
 flecheThe euro: a currency in search of a deeper market, enhanced economic reform and a stronger voice on the world stage
 flechePresident Barroso calls on G8 to lay the foundations for a stable energy future and makes new aid proposal for Africa
 flecheChairs' Conclusions: Euro-Med ECOFIN Ministerial Meeting
 fleche"South and East Mediterranean economies, like Europe, would gain from further economic reforms"

 flecheLe Comité ministériel euro-méditerranéen examine à Tunis les orientations futures de la FEMIP
 flecheMondialisation et Travail décent pour tous
 fleche“Cross border cooperation: encourage a new bottom-up generation of projects”
 flecheEU-US Summit: signature of new agreement to boost cooperation in higher education and vocational training
 flecheWhite paper on a European Communication Policy
 flecheWine: Profound reform will balance market, increase competitiveness, preserve rural areas and simplify rules for producers and consumers
 flecheCommission proposes to upgrade EU’s relations with South Africa to a Strategic Partnership
 flecheTrade and competitiveness
 flecheCommission promotes 'decent work in the world' to fight poverty and promote fair globalisation
 flecheEuropean Charter for Film Online endorsed by major industry players
 flecheEvasion of anti-dumping duties under scrutiny
 flecheCommission: Bulgaria’s and Romania’s accession possible in 2007, if preparation efforts are intensified
 flecheCommission spring economic forecasts 2006-2007: growth rebounds
 flecheEnlargement, two years on: all win as new Member States get richer
 flecheCommission actions since the Chernobyl Disaster
 flecheEuropean Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy
Islam in Europe – from dialogue to action

 flecheCommissioner Michel sends a warning signal on shortage of doctors and nurses in Africa
 flecheEurope, Latin America and the Caribbean – working together for greater social solidarity
 fleche"Dialogue of Cultures – clash of civilizations or clash of ignorance?"
 fleche«La dimension sociale de la Mondialisation dans la politique de développement»
 flecheThe European Commission proposes that 2008 be "European Year of Intercultural Dialogue"

 flecheEuro-Mediterranean Policy / Preparation of APEM
 flecheEuropean Neighbourhood Policy
 fleche«A regional strategy for peace, security and development for the Horn of Africa»
 flecheThe Commission welcomes the CARIM first annual Report on Mediterranean Migration
 flecheEuropean Institute of Technology: the Commission proposes a new flagship for excellence
 flecheCommission proposes up to €500 million per year for a new European Globalisation adjustment Fund to support workers
 flecheTrade in services
 flecheEuropean Commission steps up efforts to put Europe’s memory on the Web via a “European Digital Library”
 flecheEU and the Caribbean: Commission proposes a new partnership for growth, stability and development
 flecheNew Regional aid Guidelines 2007-2013 - European Union / Provisional text
 flecheInauguration of the EAS: The European Administrative School (EAS), the first inter-institutional training centre celebrates its official inauguration on 10 February 2006
 flecheAu service des régions: politique régionale de l'UE
 flecheCouncil decision on the conclusion of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions
 flecheState aid: Commission adopts new regional aid guidelines for 2007-2013
 flecheAfrica’s “silent tsunamis”: Commission adopts humanitarian aid decisions worth €165.7 million
 flecheEuropean Union adopts new ‘tariff-only’ import regime for bananas from 1 January 2006
 flecheEU radically reforms its sugar sector to give producers long-term competitive future
 flecheRising international economic integration: opportunities and challenges
 flecheCommissioner Mariann Fischer Boel urges Council to adopt bold and responsible sugar reform
 flecheProposing the launch of a european transparency initiative
 flecheEU should implement democratic safeguards in stalled Constitution now without waiting for ratification, says CoR President
 flecheCommission welcomes the support by the EU Council and the Parliament to offer a complete untying of aid
 flecheEU and Morocco reach agreement on Galileo
 flecheBird Flu - European Commission earmarks €30 million for Asia
 flechePublic procurement: EU and China strengthen cooperation
 flecheEuropean scientists develop H7N1 avian flu vaccine
 flecheEuropean values in the globalised world
 flecheAdoption of a Unesco Convention on Cultural Diversity
 flecheEuropean Commission launches PLAN D for Democracy, Dialogue and Debate
 flecheEuropean Commission adopts “European Union Strategy for Africa”
 flecheLatest report underlines progress in the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue
 flecheThe European Union opens accession negotiations with Croatia
 flecheEuro area economy gains momentum despite clouds on the horizon
 flecheEconomic Partnership Agreements: EU and Caribbean Region launch third phase of negotiations
 flecheDon’t stop learning ! The European Commission promotes adult education with increased funding
 flecheClimate change: Commission proposes strategy to curb greenhouse gas emissions from air travel
 flecheEuropean Day of Languages: half of the EU’s population can speak a language other than their mother tongue
 flecheDéclaration, au nom de l'Union européenne, sur la reprise unilatérale par l'Iran des activités de conversion de l'uranium dans l'usine d'Ispahan
 flecheEuropean Commission welcomes Israeli disengagement from Gaza and prepares further measures to support the peace process
 flecheAvian Influenza: Commission asks Member States to step up surveillance
 flecheEuropean Commission actions in the field of aviation safety
 flecheEuropean Commission mobilizes extra €58 M to the Global Fund to accelerate the fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in developing countries
 flecheEuropean Commission launches a four-year Campaign to raise public awareness on sustainable energy
 flecheCounterfeiting and piracy: the Commission proposes European criminal-law provisions to combat infringements of intellectual property rights
 flecheA European Union Agency to protect and promote fundamental rights
 flecheFunding for European cinema: significant increase in new Member States’ applications for EU support
 flecheEuropean Documentation Centres
 flecheEuropean documentation centres in the European Union
 flecheDecision of the european parlement and of the concil establishing for the period 2007-2013 the programme "Citizens for Europe"to promote active European citizenship
 fleche La BEI et la Banque Mondiale intensifient leur coopération sur les Pays Partenaires Méditerranéens
 flecheConférence de presse pré Conseil européen de M. José Manuel BARROSO, Président de la Commission européenne
 flecheCultural diversity : a major step towards the adoption of a UNESCO Convention
 flecheAnother successful year for Erasmus : student and teacher mobility rose by almost 10% in 2003/2004
 flecheEU Trade Commissioner urges African Trade Ministers: make Doha the “Round for Africa”
 flecheCommission paves the way for renewal of EU Sustainable Development Strategy
 flecheThe Doha Development Agenda
 flecheCommission presents a set of proposals for enlarging the Schengen area to the new member states

 flecheAddressing the concerns of young people in Europe: the Commission adopts a communication on youth policies
 fleche Environment: Green Week 2005 gets to grips with climate change
 flecheCommission White Paper on market access for developing countries: opening the door to development

 flecheCommission tables first elements for a genuine European Space Policy
 flecheThird progress report on economic and social cohesion
 flecheThe EU and the US: a bilateral partnership for global solutions
 flecheChinese textiles imports investigation: use of the urgency procedure
 flecheEU proposes WTO consultations with China on two textile product categories
 fleche Partenariat Union européenne/États-Unis: la Commission propose de renforcer les relations économiques et politiques
 fleche President Barroso meets Afghan President Hamid Karzai – and announces details of Afghan reconstruction programmes for 2005/2006
 flecheNouveau site Web et budget de 6 millions d’euros pour l’établissement de relations en vue de la recherche de partenaires commerciaux appropriés dans l’Union européenne élargie
 fleche Mr Olli Rehn, Member of the European Commission, responsible for Enlargement
"Prioritisation: where should Turkey focus its energies"
Forum Istanbul - Istanbul, 5 May 2005

 flecheThe new Europe Direct information network: Europe on your doorstep
 flecheImproving and extending the use of ICT to make the most of Europe’s cultural and audiovisual heritage
 flecheThe European Union on your doorstep: new generation of information relays launched
 flecheEuropean Commission welcomes breakthrough in WTO agriculture talks
 flecheNew tools for knowledge and growth: EU scientists propose priorities for research infrastructures
 flecheClimate change: Commission hails entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol
 flecheWomen and the elderly are crossing the digital divide, but the poor still lag behind, says new EU report
 flecheTsunami: Commission takes further action to help rebuild fisheries and aquaculture sector in tsunami-hit areas
 flecheErasmus Mundus: 69 universités supplémentaires participent au programme
 flecheTranslating the Monterrey Consensus into Practice: the Contribution by the European Union
 fleche European Commission launches public debate on economic migration
 flecheCommission pledges €140 million to help eliminate the threat of anti-personnel land mines
 flecheEuropean handbook on integration
 flecheFirst European handbook on integration of immigrants presented by European Commission
 flecheEU-India Summit: towards a strategic partnership
 flecheQuestions for the general public concerning the future European Fundamental Rights Agency
 flecheDiscours de M. António Vitorino à la Conférence des Présidents des commissions compétentes en matière d'immigration des parlements de l'UE
 flecheEU-WTO: In WTO review of trade policy EU will stress its support for the multilateral trade system
 flecheWhat Europeans think of the EU’s farm policy
 flecheDeveloping countries: the Commission proposes system of trade preferences for 2006-2008
 flecheCommission appeals against WTO sugar ruling
 flecheEnlargement - Turkey's progress towards accession
 flecheLa Commission approuve un rapport sur la gouvernance européenne (2003-2004)
 flecheCommission launches new portal giving all citizens of the enlarged EU access to better information on their rights
 flecheCommission grants Euro 93 million to upgrade European Research and Education Internet (GÉANT)
 flecheStrengthening economic governance and improving the Stability and Growth Pact
 flecheCountdown 2015 - Sexual & Reproductive Health & Rights for all : London, 31 August - 2 September 2004
 flecheGeneral information concerning in-service training (stages) with the European Commission
 flechePortail sur les possibilités d'éducation et de formation dans l'ensemble de l'espace européen
 flechePresident-designate Barroso unveils his team
 flecheImmigration & asylum : current state of play
 flecheBarroso, José Manuel
 flecheWith oil prices surging, Loyola de Palacio recalls the necessity of having a concerted European approach to the issue of security of energy supplies
 flecheEuropean Commission approves 5.75 million euros for crises in Asia

 flecheThe role of broadband networks in securing knowledge-based regions
 flecheThe humanitarian crisis in Greater Darfur, Sudan- response of the European Commission - UPDATE EU by far the biggest donor

 flecheEndangered wildlife: Commission wants tighter rules to protect wild animals and plants from unsustainable international trade
 flecheEU’s Position on the Middle East Conflict
 flecheEU-Latin American and Caribbean Summit
 flecheLamy, Pascal
 flecheCox, Pat
 flecheProdi, Romano
 flecheEuropean Commission Statement on the European Parliament elections
 flecheCommission proposes action to secure the social dimension of globalisation
 flecheEU-Latin American and Caribbean Summit: moving the strategic partnership forward
 flecheEU takes action to foster international sustainable fishing
 flecheWTO-DDA: EU ready to go the extra mile in three key areas of the talks
 flecheStatement of President Prodi on enlargement
 flecheCommission takes further steps to ensure access to medicines for poor countries
 flecheCroatia: Commission recommends opening of accession negotiations
 flecheCommission prepares the necessary steps to welcome a united Cyprus into the European Union on 1 May 2004
 flecheWTO India - GSP: WTO confirms differentiation among developing countries is possible
 flecheCommission adopts new safe harbour for licensing of patents, know-how and software copyright
 flecheAir pollution: Commission takes legal action against 10 Member States
 flecheCommission Spring Economic Forecasts 2004 -2005 for the euro area, the European Union and the Acceding and Candidate countries
 flecheCommission recommends concrete action to promote growth and employment in the enlarged Union
 flecheEurope needs more scientists: EU blueprint for action
 flecheThe European Commission and Philip Morris International confirm discussions
 flecheNew EU Centre for Disease Prevention and Control adopted
 flechePresidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 25/26 march 2004
 flecheCommission concludes on Microsoft investigation, imposes conduct remedies and a fine
 flecheKey data on health 2002 Health in the EU under the microscope
 flecheEU acts to increase transparency, efficiency and predictability in the use of trade defence
 flecheEU-Canada: Commission agrees design of future EU-Canada Trade and Investment Enhancement Agreement
 flecheBiodiversity: Commission sounds alarm on need to reduce global biodiversity loss
 flecheDeveloping countries: Commission adopts action plan to help developing countries fight agricultural commodity dependency and support the development of the cotton sector in Africa
 flecheEuropean Union signs landmark tourism accord with China today in Beijing
 flecheLa Commission appelle à un renforcement des relations entre l'UE et la Russie
 flecheTrade implications of EU enlargement: Facts and Figures
 flecheThe future of WTO
 flecheWestern Balkans proceed with economic transition
 flecheRomano Prodi President of the European Commission. 2004 Spring Report. Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament.
 flecheCommission reports on progress towards meeting 'Johannesburg' commitments
 flecheEuropean Research Network extended to the Balkans with EU Support
 flecheCommission calls on Member States to keep up the momentum in tackling poverty and social exclusion
 flecheEuropean Commission stands behind the Kyoto Protocol
 flecheUS Steel: EU welcomes termination of US steel safeguard measure
 flecheCommission launches preparations for Balkan participation in Community programmes
 flecheWTO and agriculture: Fischler's five tests to kick-start stalled talks
 flechePresident Prodi statement World Aids Day
 flecheEC action against HIV/AIDS
 fleche2003 review of the EU economy: On the verge of new patterns of economic growth?
 flecheEU- WTO: European Commission proposes to put Doha Round of trade talks back on track
 flecheCommission discusses amendments to EU Constitution
 flecheEU-India Summit: An opportunity to strengthen relations
 flecheCommission adopts five new humanitarian aid decisions worth over EUR 11.5 million
 flecheCommission and United Nations join forces to launch humanitarian appeals for 2004
 flecheCommission proceeds with excessive deficit procedure for Germany
 flecheEU-Mercosur: Ministerial meeting to roadmap free trade negotiations
 flecheState of play on GMO authorisations under EU law
 flecheComenius Week
Highlighting the European dimension at school

 flecheBulgaria, Romania and Turkey make significant progress towards accession criteria
 flecheAcceding countries expected to be ready for accession, urged to tackle remaining issues
 flecheForeign Sales Corporations (FSC): Commission prepares for the imposition of countermeasures on US products
 flecheEU/Russia Summit, Rome, 6 November
 flecheRemoving obstacles to development: Commission proposes EUR 250 million to support African-led peace keeping operations in Africa
 flecheAccelerating the fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria: Commission commits further EUR 170 million to the Global Fund
 flecheAfghanistan: Commission Proposes EUR 79.5 million for Fourth Reconstruction programme
 flecheEnvironmental democracy: Commission promotes citizens' involvement in environmental matters
 flecheEU Cohesion Policy: Commissioner Barnier visits Cyprus
 flecheSingle-hull oil tankers banned from European ports from 21 October 2003
 flecheHIV/AIDS: European Research provides clear proof that HIV virus cannot pass through condoms
 flecheA european knowledge society in a global community
 flecheCommission provides support to OLAF and Belgian authorities on investigation into fraud in grain trade prices
 flecheEU complies with WTO ruling on Hormone beef and calls on USA and Canada to lift trade sanctions
 flecheEU-Andean Community: Second Round of Negotiations for new Political Dialogue and Co-operation Agreement
 flecheEurobarometer : latest survey shows growing support for key EU policies in acceding countries
 flecheCommission acts to boost efficiency and flexibility of EU development assistance to benefit the poor
 flecheCommission proceeds with excessive deficit procedure for France assesses
 flecheCinedays 2003: long live European cinema!
 flecheEuropean industry leaders and EU policymakers meet to plan for security research
 flecheEuro area economy demonstrates initial signs of recovery
 flecheEuropean Commission, eight acceding countries and US sign Bilateral Investment Understanding
 flecheTrade in Cotton: constructive proposals to solve African problem
 flecheCommission adopts opinion on the European Constitution
 fleche"State of play of Agriculture Negotiations"
 flecheWorld cotton day: EU sympathises with concerns of African countries
 flecheKey areas for decision in Cancun
 flecheEverything you wanted to know about Cancun
 flecheJoin EU Trade Commissioner Pascal Lamy in an on-line chat September 4 2003
 flecheEuropean Commission regrets the request for a WTO panel on GMOs
 flecheEC and US propose a framework for a joint approach on agricultural questions in WTO
 flecheTrade in agricultural goods and fishery products. EU – US Joint Text on Agriculture

 flecheWTO Farm Talks/Cancun: EU’s Fischler calls for renewed effort to bridge differences
 flecheEU-US Summit - Washington
 flecheThessaloniki European Council - Presidency Conclusions
 flecheAccess to medicines: EU clears plan to ensure delivery of cheap medicines to developing countries
 flecheLe Conseil Éducation adopte les critères de référence européens
 flecheOMC SERVICES - L'UE propose d'améliorer les échanges commerciaux - au bénéfice des pays en développement
 flecheLa Commission propose de créer un Fonds européen pour l'eau doté d'un budget d'1 milliard d'euros
 flecheEU survey results: Europe goes on-line for health information, but still prefers more traditional sources
 flecheLa lutte contre les maladies transmissibles dans les pays en développement: la Commission resserre son programme d'action
 flecheMultilingualism in the European Commission: A long-standing tradition and an asset to the European Union
 flecheSustainable agriculture for developing countries: the options offered by life sciences and biotechnology
 fleche'Your Voice in Europe': new Commission portal aims to give citizens a bigger role in policy making
 flecheAgriculture: plus grande ouverture du marché et réduction du soutien faussant les échanges
 flecheCombating digital illiteracy, promoting virtual campuses and virtual twinning of schools: the e-learning programme's aims (2004-2006)
 flecheLa Commission place la politique industrielle au premier plan de ses préoccupations
 flechePascal Lamy salue l'achèvement des négociations sur l'adhésion de l'Arménie à l'OMC
 flecheForum européen du tourisme: promotion du développement durable dans le tourisme
 flecheLibéralisation des services : l'Union européenne lance un consultation publique sur les demandes pour l'accès au marché européen
 flecheEU - Russia economic and trade relations: an overview
 flecheL'Union européenne va négocier des accords de partenariat avec des Etats d'Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique
 flecheL’UE poursuit sa bataille pour étendre l’accès aux médicaments pour les pays en développement
 flecheL'Europe lance un partenariat avec les pays en voie de développement pour lutter contre le sida, la malaria et la tuberculose
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